Graphic Design and Printing Terminology
AA Authors Alterations, changes other than
corrections, made by a client after the proofing process has begun. AAs
are usually charged to a client as
Absorbency the capacity a paper has for
accepting liquids, like the inks or water used to run offset lithographic
presses. see also ink absorption,ink holdout.
Acid-free paper paper manufactured on
a paper machine with the wet-end chemistry controlled to a neutral or slightly
alkaline pH. see also alkaline papermaking, archival, permanence, pH, wet
Actual weight the true weight of any volume
of paper. The actual weight of paper is used to determine both purchase
price and shipping costs. see also basic size, basis weight, weight.
Additives ingredients of paper other than
pulp. Additives include clay fillers, dyes, sizing, and other chemicals.
see also clay, ingredients of paper, papermaking, sizing.
Alkaline Papermaking the manufacture of
paper under alkaline conditions using additives, caustic fillers like calcium
cand neutral size. Alkaline paperis usally used where aging resistance is
desired. It's the logical choice for documents, books, and maps. All of
Champion uncoated premium papers are made with an alkaline process, so they're
long-lasting and well-suited for permanent record applications. see also
acid-free paper, archival paper, calcuim carbonate, lignin, papermaking,
permanence, pH, sizing.
Alum also called hydrated aluminum sulfate
or papermaker's alum. A papermaking chemical that's typically used when
adding rosin size to pulp, alum imparts water-resistant properties to paper.
In practical terms, it keeps paper from clinging to the presses, see also
Aqueous Coating a water-based caoting
applied after printing, either while the paper is still on press ("in
line"), or after it's off press. An aque- ous coating usually gives
a gloss, dull, or matte finish, and helps prevent the underlying ink from
rubbing off. Unlike a UV coat- ing or a varnish, an aqueous coating will
accept ink-jet printing, making it a natural choice for jobs that require
printing addresses for mass mailings. see also coated paper, finishing,
UV coating, varnish.
Archival Paper paper that's alkaline and
won't deteriorate over time. Archival papers must meet national standards
for permanence: they must be acid-free and alkaline with a pH of 7.5 to
8.5; include 2% calcium carbonate as an alkaline reserve; and not contain
any groundwood or unbleached wook fiber. The expected life of archival paper
is more than 100 years. see also acid-free, alkaline papermaking, permanence,
Art Director The individual responsible
for overseeing the creative and production process and managing other creative
Backing Up paper that's alkaline and won't
deteriorate over time. Archival papers must meet national standards for
permanence: they must be acid-free and alkaline with a pH of 7.5 to 8.5;
include 2% calcium carbonate as an alkaline reserve; and not contain anyu
ground wood or unbleached wook fiber. The expected life of archival paper
is more than 100 years. see also acid-free, alkaline papermaking, permanence,
Basic Size the customary sheet size used
to establish the basis weight of a ream (500 sheets) of a given grade of
paper. Standard basic sizes vary by paper grade. For example, the basic
size of book paper is 25"x38", while the basic size of cover stock
is 20"x26". see also basis weight, weight.
Basis Weight the weight, in pounds, of
a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard (basic size). Each
major paper grade, like cover, bond, or offset, has its own basic sheet
size, which determines its basis weight. For example, the basic size of
book paper is 25"x38" for 500 sheets; therefore, 500 sheets of
70lb. offset book paper in 25"x38" will actually weigh 70 pounds.
see also basic size, ream weight, weight.
Binding fastening papers together for
easy reading, transport, and pro- textion. Papers may be bound together
with a variety of materi- als, like wire, thread, glue, and plastic combs.
types of binding see also finishing, folding, imposition, scoring, signature.
Blade-coating a method of coating paper
and paperboard using a flexible blade to control the amount of coating applied
to the paper. The coating is made of pigments, additives, and adhesives.
Blade-coating can take place either on the papermaking machine or on an
off-machine coater. While paper may be coated on one side (C1S) or both
sides (C2S), blade-coated paper are usually calendared. This helps create
a compressed sheet with a glossy surface, reduced bulk, and enhanced printed
properties. see also bulk, calendering, clay, coated paper.
Blanket see impression cylinder, offset.
Bleaching a chemical treatment used to
whiten and purify pulp. Bleached pulp is known for being strong and durable.
see also celemtal chlorine free (ECF), OD100 precess, papermaking, pulp.
Bleach Filtrate Recycling (BFR) process Champion's
groundbreaking new patented process that recycles precess wastes from the
bleach plant instead of discharging them to the waste water treatment facility.
This technology uses Champion's 0D100 bleaching process, and is being demonstrated
at Champion's Canton, Norht Carolina mill. see also elemental chlorine free
(ECF), OD100 process.
Bleed an image or printed color that runs
off the trimmed edge of a page. Bleeding one or more edges of a printed
page generally increases both the amount of paper needed and the overall
production cost of a printed job. Bleeds are created by trimming the page
Blind Embossing stamping raised letters
or images into paper using pressure and a die, but without using foil or
ink to add color to the raised areas. Braille is an example of blind embossing.
see also elemental chlorine free (ECF), OD100 process.
Blueline A printer's proof, actually blue
on white paper. All AAs and corrections should have been made prior to seeing
BMP A computer graphics format "Bitmap
IBM format" not generally used in professional printing.
Bond Paper a type of office reprographic
paper, widely used for letterheads and business forms. Bond papers are characterized
by strenght, durability, and performance during electronic printing. They
are manufactured with a basic size of 17"x22". see also basic
size, electronic printing, office reprographic paper, xerography.
Bonding Strength the internal strength
of a paper; the ability of the fibers within a paper to hold to one another.
Bonding strength measures the ability of the paper to hold together on the
printing press. Good bonding strength prevents fibers from coming loose
("picking"). see also picking, pick out, sizing.
Book Paper a type of offset paper with
a basic size of 25"x38". The primary applications for these products
are book publishing, commercial printing, direct mail, technical documents,
and manuals. see also basic size, offset papers, text papers.
Brightness the reflectivity of pulp, paper,
or paperboard under test condi- tions, using a specially calibrated measuring
instrument. If paper lacks brightness it will absorb too much light, so
little will reflect back through the ink. see also fluorescent dye, refractiviness,
Bristol Paper solid or laminated heavyweight
paper made to a caliper thick- ness of .006" or higher. Bristols are
generally used for tags, covers, and file folders and have a basic size
of 24.5"x30.5". see also basic size, cover paper, tag paper.
Brochures Advertising in brochure form is used by companies to connect with their clientele in an easy to follow format where the highlights of their product or service is presented in a quickly digestible format. The variety of bad credit auto loans and tier options can be quickly bulleted in brochure format. This format allows sales people and company representatives to break down the options to its potential customers and give them a physical reminder of the services made available.
Bulk the thickness of a stack of paper,
technically measured as the thickness of a specified number of sheets under
a specified pressure. For example, using the measurement of an inch, it
may take less that 100 bulky bristol sheets to make an inch- deep pile.
On the other hand, it might take hundreds of sheets to make an inch of a
lower-bulk text paper. Where thickness or the illusion of substance is a
desired effect, bulk is a key factor. see also caliper, thickness
Burn To expose photo sensitive media to
light. i.e. Burning a negative or Burning a printing plate. Also, to doge
and "burn" a photo print (makes the image darker in an area that
is burned, ads detail to lightly exposed areas)
C1S paper that is coated on one side only
(coated one side). An example of a C1S sheet is Champion All-Purpose Litho.
C2S paper that is coated on both sides
(coated two sides).
Calcium Carbonte CaCO3, a naturally occurring
substance found in a variety of sources, including chalk, limestone, marble,
oyster shells, and scale from boiled hard water. Used as a filler in the
alkaline paper manufacturing process, calcium carbonate improves several
important paper characteristics, like smoothness, brightness, opacity, and
affinity for ink; it also reduces paper acidity. It is a key ingredient
in today's paper coatings. see also alkaline papermaking, ingredients of
Calendering the process of finishing a
sheet of dried paper by pressing it between the highly polished metal cylinders
of a calenar "stack". The calendar smoothes the paper by compression.
see also finish, papermaking, smoothness, supercalendering.
Caliper the thinkness of a single sheet
of paper, as measured with a sensitive tool called a micrometer, and expressed
in units of thousandths of an inch. Caliper is a critical measure of uniformity.
Excessive variation in caliper can lead to print variation, undesirable
visual effects, and uneven stretch or press-feeding problems. It can also
create problems in folding and binding. see also bulk, thickness.
Case Binding see binding.
Cast-coating paper produced with a surface
that is a reasonably accurate replication of some other surface. To manufacture
cast-coated paper, a paper web with wet or moistened coating is brought
into contact with a polished chrome drum surface, which is replicated in
the coated sheet. There are two basic cast-coating technologies: the "wet
process", invented and developed by Champion in 1937; and the "re-wet"
process. Both methods remain in use to produce the world's out- put of cast-coated
products. The advantage of the "wet process," used to manufacture
Champion Kromekote, is that the sheet is both smooth and absorbent, not
just smooth, allowing for excel- lent ink transfer with minimal pressure.
Cast-coated papers allow inks to set and dry quickly, making wet trapping
easier and mini- mizing dot gain. In general, cast-coated papers uniquely
combine a superior flat surface with excellent ink receptivity, making them
the best of printing surfaces, regardless of the type of printing process.
see also coated-paper, dot gain, finish, smoothness, wet trap.
Camera Ready Type and/or artwork that
has been pasted into position, laser prints, or other artwork to be photographed
for plate ready film.
Cellulose Fiber the main component of
the walls of all plant cells, cellulose gives plants their structural support
and makes plant material fibrous. Both cotton and wook fibers are mostly
made up of cellulose. see also fiber, ingredients of paper, paper, pulping
Chemical Pulping manufacturing pulp by
pressure-cooking wook or other raw fibrous material into its component parts
with solutions of various chemical liquors. The predominant chemical pulping
process is the sulfate (kraft) process. see also kraft, papermaking, pulping
Choke (Choking) When trapping color closing
in an area that has another color inside so the choked color overlaps, also
Chromalin A color proofing system, usually
the final color proof before going on the press. This is a high quality
proof and all corrections and alterations should be made prior to this.
Clay a naturally occuring substance commonly
used in the paper industry. Clay is used as both a filler and a coating
ingredient. By adding clay, papermakers can improve a paper's smooth- ness,
brightness, opacity, and affinity for ink. see also additives, coated paper,
filler, ingredients of paper, opacity.
CMYK Abreviation for the four process
color inks: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black.
Coated Paper paper with an outer layer
of coating applied to one of both sides. The coating may be added while
the paper is still moving through the papermaking machine, or after it comes
off the machine. Coated papers are available in a variety of finishes, like
gloss, dull, and matte. They tend to have good ink holdout and minimal dot
gain, which can be especially important for recreat- ing sharp, bright images,
black and white halftones, and four-color process images. The smooth surface
of coated papers also helps to reflect light evenly. see also cast-coating,
clay, dot gain, dull coated, four-color process gloss, halftone, ink holdout,
matte coated, off-machine coating.
Color Key A printer's proof usually used
for viewing the individual layers of C,M,Y & K, four sheets of colored
acetate, for examining the quality of process color separations.
Color Separation Literally separating
the areas of a piece to be printed into its component spot and process ink
colors. Each color to be printed must have its own printing plate. Usually
referred to in a photographic sense a color separation of a photo done either
digitally or traditionaly on a scanner.
Colorcurve System a color matching system
based on light reflectance curves rather than on ink formulations. It is
intended to coordinate colors across a variety of surfacesa and materials
and to reduce metamerism. see also match color, metamerism, PANTONE MATCHING
Colorfastness having color that won't
run when wet, and won't fade in bright light.
Comp (comprehesive) a complete but prospective
example of a design project, demon- strating size, layout of images and
type, use of color, and paper. see also dummy
Composite Image A photograph or other
graphic image, that is made of a combination of multiple images.
Continuous Tone having an unbroken range
of intensities, as found in black and white photographs. Continuous tone
images have not been screened, and contain gradient tones from black to
white. see also halftone, screen, stochastic.
Contrast the degree of difference between
light and dark areas in an image. Extreme lights and darks give an image
high contrast. An image with a wide tonal range has lover contrast.
Conversion The process of creating a three
dimensional (3D) item from a flat sheet of paper. i.e. envelope conversion
/ box conversion
Copy The written information and other
text used in advertising and printed material.
Copyright (©) A group of legal rights
granted to the author or creator of written or visual work. All work appearing
with the © symbol or the word "copyright" is protected by
its creator or his heirs. For more information, contact your attorney.
Copy Writer The individual who writes
the written information or "copy" for an advertisement, newsletter,
publication or brochure.
Cotton Paper paper with a minimum cotton
fiber content of 25%, and a maxi- mum fiber content of 100%. When fiber
other than cotton is used, the balance comes from wood pulp. Cotton pulp
is made from rags or clippings from textile mills, raw cotton, and cotton
linters. Cotton papers are primarily used as writing papers.
Cover Paper heavier, generally stiffer
paper commonly used for book covers, folders, greeting cards, business cards,
and brochures. Uncoat- ed cover papers generally match the color and finish
of corre- sponding text papers. The basic size of cover stock is 20"x26".
see also basic size, text paper.
Curl the waviness of a sheet of paper generally
seen along its edges. Curling is generally the result of physical stresses
or changes in humidity, and mayoccur at the paper mill, in the pressroom,
on press, or after binding. Paper tends to curl along, rather than across,
the grain of the paper. Recycled and recycled content papers have less tendency
to curl than virgin fiber papers because their fibers are shorter. see also
grain, relative humidity.
Cut-size writing or business papers that
are cut to a finished size of 8.5"x11", 8.5"x14", or
11"x17". Cut-size papers, like Champion Inkjet, are usually packed
in reams of 500 sheets before leaving the mill.
Cylinder Machine a type of papermaking
machine. Wire covered cylinders are rotated through a vat of pulp, and paper
is formed as the water drains from the cylinder. Cylinder machines are mostly
used for manufacturing paperboard. Multicylinder machines are capable or
producing multi-layered paperboard (one layer for each cylinder). see also
Dandy Roll a wire mesh cylinder used to
smooth the top of paper as it forms. Enhancing both surface smoothness and
formation, the dandy roll may also carry a design, which will create a water-
mark, identifying the sheet. see also laid finish, papermaking, watermark.
Debossing pressing letters or illustrations
into a sheet of paper using a metal or plastic die to create a depressed
(debossed) image. see also embossing.
Deckle Edge the feathery edge on a sheet
of paper, created as the paper machine sprays a stream of water or a jet
of air across the paper as it's being formed. Deckle edges can also be created
after the paper is made, using a die. This method creates a less feathery,
Deinking removing ink and other finishing
materials, like coatings, sizings, and adhesives from printed paper. The
complex deinking process is what makes recycling paper difficult and ultimately
adds to the cost of a recycled sheet of paper. To produce high-quality recycled
or recycled content papres for printing and writing, the deinking process
needs to be thorough. The goal is to end up with reusable fiber that has
few impurities, since impurities lower the quality of a reycyled sheet and
can some- times damage equipment in the papermaking and printing process.
Modern offset and flexographic ink, photocopier and laser printing "ink,"
ultraviolet and thermography coatings, and adhesives make it increasingly
difficult to deink paper. deinking process see also bleaching, flotation,
pulping wood, recycled paper.
Densitometer an instrument used throughout
a print run to measure the optical density of ink on paper.
Density the weight of a sheet of paper
as compared to its bulk. For example, a paper that weighs more than another
paper but is thinner has a higher density. Compacting the fibers creates
a dense paper. see also bulk, weight.
Desktop Publishing A process for creating
camera ready and plate ready artwork on a personal computer.
Die-cutting using a formed, meta-edged
die to precision cut , or to cut shapes into a piece of paper. If a printing
project requires a custom-made die, the total cost of the job will increase.
Digital Imaging The process of creating
a digital output of an illustration, photographic image, computer file or
other computer generated materials. Output media can be film, paper, transparencies,
vinyl and other materials.
Digital Photography The process of recording
images using a digital camera or a conventional camera with a digital adapter,
it records on a disk or on microchip whitch can then be downloaded directly
to a computer in tiff, pict or eps format.
Digital Printing A type of printing which
uses digital imaging process that transfers the image directly onto plain
paper imediately, without traditional offset rollers and plates.
Dimensional Stability a measure of paper's
tendency to stretch or shrink, especially when affected by changes in moisture
content from humidity, the printing process, or even the passage of time.
Paper that maintains its original dimensions has a high degree of dimen-
sional stability. see also grain, relative humidity, resilience, runnability.
Dispersion see deinking
Dot Compensation adjusting the size of
the dots in halftones or four-color images to allow for dot gain and to
ensure that the color and detail of the image print as intended. see also
dot gain, four-color process, halftone, ink holdout, screen.
Dot Gain A printing term which describes
wet ink coming in contact with paper and spreading as it is transfers. As
the halftone dots are applied to the paper, the wet ink spreads, causing
the dots to increase in size and halftones to appear darker. Paper weight,
type of paper (coated or uncoated), press type (especially web presses),
effect the amount of dot gain in a given printed piece. You may compensate
for dot gain by calculating the dot gain before a print job and lessen the
density of the images to be printed before you output film. See also dot
compensation, four-color process, halftone.
DPI (dot per inch) the number of dots that
fit horizontally and vertically into a one- inch measure. Generally, the
more dots per inch, the more detail is captured, and the sharper the resulting
image. see also halftone, lines per inch, screen.
Dry End the drying section of the papermaking
machine, after the press setion, at which point most water has been removed
from the paper. As paper moves through the dry end, the drying process is
completed and the paper reel is wound. see also drying, felt, papermaking,
Dry Trap a layer of wet ink being applied
over a previous layer of dry ink in a separate run of the printing press.
Dry trapping usually pro- duces sharper images than wet trapping because
subsequent layers of ink aren't diluted by prior wet or damp layers. Dry
trap- ping is also more expensive because the paper travels through the
press more than once. see also trapping, wet trap.
Drying the step in the papermaking process
that brings the moisture content of paper to approximately 5%. This is done
by moving the web of paper around a series of heated iron drums in the dry
end of the paper machine. see also dry end, papermaking.
Dryography waterless offset lithography.
This printing process is able to use extremely fine line screens to produce
high resolution printing. see also offset, waterless printing.
Dull Coated a coated paper finish that
falls between glossy and matte. see also coated paper, gloss, matte coated.
Dummy an unprinted mock-up of a book, brochure,
or "to-be-printed" piece. A dummy is made of the same paper stocks
that will be used in the finished piece, and serves as a reference for the
cliet, designer, printer, mailing, house, or distributor. The print- er,
paper, merchant, or paper consultant generally provides the dummy at the
request of the designer. see also comp, paper consultant.
Duotone a two-color halftone of the same
imaegs created with two screens, two plates, and two colors. Most halftones
are one-color halftones, printed with black ink on white paper. By blending
the black of the tiny ink dots and the white of the paper, the human eye
sees shades of gray. Duotones are made by printing an image with two colors,
generally black and a second color. The full range of tones are printed
black and the middle range of tones are printed in the second color. The
result is a striking image with more richness and depth that a one-color
halftone. The image can be further enhanced by printing a tritone or a quadratone;
these are also reproductions of black and white images, perhaps with a touch
of color. The cost of printing tritones or quadratones may be as high as
or higher than four- color process printing. see also four-color process,
halftone, quadratone, screen, tritone.
Dust tiny, free pieces of fiber, filler,
and/or coating on paper. During printing, dust may adhere to the blanket
and create imperfec- tions by not allowing ink to reach the paper surface.
see also hickey, jog.
Electronic Printing a printing method that
creates images using electrostatic charges, rather than by pressing ink
onto a plate. Photocopiers and inkjet or laser printers use electronic printing.
see also electrophotography, printing methods, xerography.
Elctrophotography a printing process that
uses principles of electricity and electrically-charged particles to create
images. In photocopiers and laser printers, electric charges create the
image on an electrophographic surface that works as a printing plate. This
surface is cleared after each image or copy is made, and is used over again
for the next copy. see also electronic printing, printing process, xerography.
Electronic Publishing A new process by
which information is distributed in electronic formats. The internet is
a prime example of electronic publishing. Also books on CD ROM are considered
Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) the more
common name for molecular chlorine free, and a bleaching that dosn't use
chlorine gas. Champion is a leader in ECF technology, using chlorine dioxide
rather than elemental chlorine in the pulp and bleaching processes. see
also bleaching, OD100 process, papermaking
Em Space A lateral space equal to the
width of the lower case letter "m". Likewise, En space, is the
space of the lower case "n". Used in typography and typesetting.
Emboss A process by which a dye is used
for raising an area of paper to create letterforms, shapes and textures.
The dye can be made of magnesium, which is created from exposing light to
the magnesium and leaving only the form of the artwork to be pressed into
paper, or brass which is hand done, is more expensive but looks very good
with beveled edges and fine detail. see also blind embossing, debossing.
Emulsion The chemically treated side of
photographic film. (The dull side not the shiny side.) Depending on the
printing process involved, film will be requested usually as "right
reading emulsion down".
Enamel a general term referring to coated
paper that has a higher basis weight than coated publication (magazine)
paper, but a lower basis weight and caliper than coated cover paper. An
example of enamel is Champion Kromekote Enamel. see also C2S, coated paper.
Engraving a printing process using intaglio,
or recessed plates. Made from steel or copper, engraving plates cost more
than plates used in most other printing processes, such as lithography.
Ink sits in the recessed wells of the plate while the printing press exerts
force on the paper, pushing it into the wells and onto the ink. The pressure
creates raised letters and images on the front of the page and indentations
on the back. The raised lettering effect of engraving can be simulated using
a less costly process, called thermography. see also intaglio, plate, printing
Envelope paper that is folded and glued
in a wide variety of sizes and shapes, for containing letter of other materials.
Many printing jobs will end up in an envelope. The closer a finished piece
is to an envelope size, the easier it will be to mail and the less chance
it will be damaged by jostling around inside the envelope. An envelope maker
can make just about any size envelope needed, but a custom envelope requires
a custom die and carries a custom price.
EPS (EPSF) Encapsulated Postscript File.
A vector based, computer graphics file format developed by Adobe Systems.
EPS is the preferred format for many computer illustrations, because of
its efficient use of memory and fine color control. The artwork description
is "plotted" by the computer. Example: point "A" has
a line that goes to point "B" then continues to point "C",
and is filled with a color. (bitmapped artwork atributes a color for every
pixel on the computer screen and is not postscript)
Felt a fabric of natural or synthetic fibers
used in the press section of a papermkaing machine to absorb water from
the paper as it is manufactured. see also felt finish, papermaking.
Felt Finish a soft texture that affects
the look but not the strength of an uncoated paper. A felt finish can be
created at the wet end during the papermaking process in one of two ways;
either with a roll that is covered with a felt, or with a rubber roll with
a felt-patterned finish. An embossed felt finish is creat- ed off the machine,
after the paper has dried. Champion Carnival Felt is an example of a paper
with a felt finish created during the papermaking process. see also felt
finish, finish, papermaking, wet end.
Felt Side the top side of the paper, which
comes in contact with the dandy roll and felts during the papermaking process.
The bottom side of the paper, which comes in contact with the wire (forming
fab- ric) or the papermaking machine, is called the wire side. The felt
side of a paper may appear to be softer, while the wire side of a paper
may have more "tooth." During printing, the softer texture of
the felt side of an uncoated paper may pick up slightly more ink than the
wire side of the same sheet, and the printer may have to adjust ink densities
to compensate for this. Paper is generally packed and shipped as it is made:
felt side up. see also finish, papermaking, tooth, two-sidedness, wire side.
Fiber filaments of plant tissue, such as
cottom fiber and wood fiber. Some specialty papers may contain synthetic
fibers, such as rayon or nylon. see also ingredients of paper.
Fiber-added Paper paper with visible fibers,
flecks, and specks. The term may be a bit misleading because all paper is
made from fiber. The most common fiber additives are wood chips, colored
cotton fibers, and colored rayon fibers. see also recycled paper, recycled-content
Filler materials like clay added to pulp
before it's formed into paper. Fillers improve a sheet's smoothness, brightness,
and affinity for ink. see also clay, ingredients of paper.
Finish the surface characteristics of a
paper. Finishes may be created on-machine or off-machine. On-machine finishing
can be done two ways: for a smooth or vellum finish, pressure is imparted
on the sheet with a finishing "stack." Laid of felt finishes are
made with a marking roll, which actually presses the pattern into the paper
shile it's still wet. Off-machine finishes are called embosses. This is
a separate step that presses the paper between a steel pattern roll and
either a hard cotton backing roll (to create the finish on both sides),
or a plastic roll (for smoothness on one side). Several generic terms describe
the various finishes of uncoated paper, such as vellum, smooth, and laid.
Individual paper manufacturers may not use these terms consistently, instead
unsing unique finishes or unique names for common finishes. see also calendering,
embossed, papermaking, supercalender.
Finishing preparing printed pages for use.
Most printed jobs require one or more finishing steps, such as trimming,
folding, or binding. see also binding, folding, trimming.
Flexography a direct (not offset) printing
method that uses relief plates, similar to rubber stamps, which are made
from rubber or photopolymer. The flexible plates are wrapped around a cylinder
on the printing press. "Flexo" workds best when printing large
areas of solid color, making it popular for printing plastic bags, wrapping
paper, and milk cartons. It's also used for the Sunday color comics and
newspaper inserts. Rubber manufactures, eager to find new uses for rubber,
have invested heavily in flex- ographic research, and improvements have
been made in ink coverage and four-color registration. see also four-color
process, offset, plate, printing process, registration, relief.
Floatation a method for removing ink from
paper during the deinking process by floating if off the paper. see also
Fluorescent Dye a coloring agent added
to paper to increase its brightness. Fluorescent dyes give white papers
added brilliance in natural light and may add a slight cast like blue or
green. see also brightness, refractiveness, whiteness.
Fuorescent Inks printing inks that both
emit and reflect light. Generally, these inks are brighter and more opaque
than traditional inks. Using one or more fluorescent inks can actually brighten
a printed image - especially four-color process printing on uncoated stock.
On the down side, fluorescent inks are not colorfast and will fade in bright
light and sunlight over time. They can also have a negative effect on dot
gain and trapping, making the printing less sharp and without as much detail.
see also dot gain, trapping
Focaltone A proprietary color matching
system for process color.
Foil Stamping to cover paper with a thin,
flexible sheet of metal or other material. The foil, which may be clear
or opaque, comes in a range of colors, and is carried on a plastic sheet.
Stamping separates the foil from the plastic and makes it adhere to the
paper. Foild stamping can be combined with embossing or debossing as an
added design element. see also debossing, embossing.
Folding doubling up a sheet of paper so
that one part lies on top of another. Folding stresses the paper fibers.
To create a smooth, straight fold, heavy papers, like cover stocks and bristols,
need to be scored before they're folded. Multiple fold strength is important
in printed pieces like books, maps, and pamplets. It's far less important
in one-fold opera- tions like greeting cards or envelops, where fold cracking
is the vital consideration. Folding strength is negatively affected y the
drying heat of various printing and finishing operations. see also binding,
finishing, gatefold, imposition, scoring, signature.
Form the assembled pages and images as
printed on a single large sheet, before trimming. With the correct imposition,
the pages of a form will be in correct order after folding and trimming.
Once folded and trimmed, a form becomes a "signature." see also
folding, imposition, signature, trimming.
Formation the uniformity of fibers in a
sheet of paper. For example, paper with fine formation has evenly dispersed
fibers, and will be smoother and more uniform than a paper with uneven forma-
tion. The tighter the fibers are bound, the more uniform the surface, and
the better the printed sheet usually looks. see also fiber, grain.
Four-color Process a method that uses dots
of magenta (red), cyan (blue), yellow, and black to simulate the continuous
tones and variety of colors in a color image. Reproducing a four-color image
begins with separating the image into four different halftones by using
color filters of the opposite (or negative) color. For instance, a red fil-
ter is used to capture the cyan halftone, a blue filter is used to capture
the yellow halftone, and a green filter is used to capture the magenta halftone.
Because a printing press can't change the tone intensity of ink, four-color
process relies on a trick of the eye to mimic light and dark areas. Each
halftone separation is printed with its process color (magenta, cyan, yellow,
and black). When we look at the final result, our eyes blend the dots to
recreate the continuous tones and variety of colors we see in a color photograph,
painting, or drawing. see also color separation, continuous tone, dots per
inch, halftone, screen subtractive color, touchplate.
Fourdrinier a papermaking machine with
a horizontal continuous wire belt. A slurry of pulp is poured or sprayed
onto the wire (forming fabric); the water is then drained off and pressed
out; and the paper is dried. see also papermaking.
Freesheet paper that contains no more than
10% mechanical wood pulp. Most freesheet papers are "free" of
mechanical (groundwood) pulp. see also pulping wood, uncoated freesheet,
Furnish fully prepared pulp and all its
ingredients: fiber, fillers, sizing, and pigments - diluted with water and
ready for the papermak- ing machine. Furnish contains about 99% water. see
also paper, pulp, slurry.
Gatefold two or more parallel folds on
a sheet of paper with the end flaps folding inward. see also folding.
GIF An eight bit (256 colors or shades
of grey) or less computer file format by Compuserve. Commonly used to post
photographic images to computer bulletin boards and the internet, GIF files
are almost never used for professional printing.
Gloss the property that's responsible for
coated paper's shiny or lustrous appearance; also the measure of a sheet's
surface reflectivity. Gloss is often associated with quality: higher qua-
lity coated papers exhibit hight gloss. Champion Kromekote is a paper noted
and sold for its exceptionally high gloss. see also cast coating, coated
Grade a type or class of paper identified
as having the same composi- tion and characteristics. Grade is a generic
paper category, such as writing, offset, cover, tag, and index paper. It
can also refer to the quality level of the paper; or to a mill's specific
brank of paper, such as Champion Carnival, Benefit, or Kromekote.
Grain the direction in which more fibers
lie in a sheet of paper. As paper is formed, the slurry of fibers moves
forward on the forming wire at high speeds, aligning the fibers in the direction
of the movement and creating the grain. At the same time, the machine shakes
the slurry of fibers from side to side, so that the fibers crisscross. This
crisscrossing creates a web of fibers, and gives the paper strength in both
directions while maintaining a predominant grain, or direction. As the moisture
in the air changes, the individual fibers take in moisture and swell sideways,
rather than from end to end; this explains why paper will expand or shrink
across the grain, and is more flexible along the grain and stiffer against
the grain. For books and other bound work, the grain should run parallel
with the binding, creating a smoother fold, making the pages easier to turn,
and allowing the paper to swell across the grain. If the binding runs across
the grain, the free ends of the paper will swell or shrink with moisture
changes, but the bound ends will not. The book will buckle and the binding
will weaken. With sheet paper, the grain direction is indicated by underscor-
ing the dimension along which the grain lies, or by changing the order of
the numbers. For example, a 23"x35" sheet is grain long; a grain
short sheet is indicated by 25"x35", or 35"x23". On
web paper, the grain runs along the length of the paper web. see also binding,
formation, grain long, grain short, papermaking, slurry.
Grain Long grain running along the length,
or long side, of a sheet of paper (23"x35"). Fibers line up parallel
to the long side of the paper. This book in your hands is an example of
grain-long binding. see also grain, grain short.
Grain Short grain running along the width,
or short side, of a sheet of paper (35"x23"). Fibers line up parallel
to the short side of the paper. see also grain, grain long.
Grammage weight in grams of a quantity
of paper cut to sheets that measure one square meter. see also weight.
Graphic A non text item, illustration,
photograph or artwork.
Graphic Design A way of communication
with visual elements and information to present an idea or concept.
Graphic Designer The person who puts Graphic
Designs together, many of whom now use computers, drafting and illustration
techniques and other tools to create with.
Gravure a printing process that uses intaglio,
or recessed, image carri- ers. The image carrier, which is flat or cylindrical,
moves through an ink pool. A blade scrapes excess ink off the plane of the
plate, leaving ink in the recessed wells. A second cylinder presses the
paper onto the plates, where it picks up ink from the wells. The high speed
of gravure presses and the durability of the metal intaglio plates make
gravure an economical printing method suitable for large print runs (more
than two million copies). see also intaglio, plate, printing methods
Greek Usually nonsense words and letterforms
that are not legible, used in a design to aproximate the "color"
of a page. Used primarily before final text is available for a client comps.
Gripper the row of clips holding the sheet
of paper as it speeds through the press. see also gripper edge.
Gripper Edge the leading edge of paper
that moves through a printing press or folding machine. No printing can
take place on the outside 3/8" of the paper on the gripper edge. see
Groove Finish a textured paper like Champion
Carnival Groove, with shallow, parallel furrows or grooves running along
the surface. This finish is created by embossing the paper after it comes
off the paper- making machine. see also embossing, finishes.
Groundwood Paper paper that contains between
10 and 75% of groundwood pulp. The groundwood pulping process, also know
as mechanical pulping, leaves many natural impurities, like lignin, in the
paper. As a result, groundwood paper is less bright and ages faster than
freesheet paper, which is made from chemical pulping. Groundwood paper isn't
recommended for any printed matter that is expected to last over time. The
advantages of ground- wood are that it's lightweight, bulky, and economical.
An example of a groundwood paper is Champion Maineweb, manufactured for
catalogs and magazines. see also bulk, freesheet, lignin, pulping wood,
Guillotine a machine used to trim stacks
of paper, which works like the original French guillotine worked. A cutting
blade moves between two upright guides and slices the paper uniformly as
it moves downward. see also trimming, trim size.
Halftone a printed picture that uses dots
to simulate the tones between light and dark. Because a printing press cannot
change the tone of ink, it will only print the ink color being used on press.
This works well for printing text or line art: the press simply puts a full
dose of ink for each letter or line on the paper, creating small solid areas
of ink. But black-and-white photographs are continuous tone images, and
printing a photograph this way would have the same result: large solid areas
of ink. White areas of the photograph would have no ink; black areas would
have black ink; and gray areas would have black, not gray ink. The halftone
mimics the continuous tone of a black-and-white photograph by converting
the picture to dots. Photographing a continuous tone image through a screen
creates a duplicate image made of dots. Darkers areas of the photograph
have bigger dots and lighter area of the photograph have smaller dots. To
the human eye, the black of the dots blend with the white of the paper to
create shades of gray. The result is strinkingly similar to the continuous
tone of a photograph. see also continuous tone, duotone, four-color process,
quadratone, screen, tritone.
Hardwood Pulp pulp made from deciduous
trees (trees that drop their leaves, such as maple and oak). Hardwood pulp
has short fibers, which give paper bulk, body, and smoothness. Papers are
often made from a blend of hardwood and softwood pulps, combining the qualities
of both into a single paper. see also softwood pulp.
Headbox the compartment that holds pulp
slurry before it is sprayed or poured onto the paper-forming wire of a papermaking
machine. see also papermaking, slurry, wet-end
Hexachrome A proprietary color separation
process, developed by Pantone, that uses six (6) instead of four process
Hickey an irregularity in the ink coverage
of a printed area. Hickeys are caused by paper or pressroom dust, dirt,
or pick out on the printing blanket, all of which prevents the ink from
adhering to the paper surface. see also dust, picking, pick out
Hydropulper equipment used to slurry pulp.
Water is added to dry pulp and fillers, and agitated until the mixture becomes
about the consis- tency of oatmeal cereal. see also papermaking, slurry.
Illustrator An individual who draws or
paints images for use in commercial art. Many new tools allow a variety
of expressions with traditional media or new computer enhanced illustration
Imagesetter A high resolution device that
prints directly to plate ready film. Many imagesetters outpur film at 2400
DPI (dots per inch).
Imposition also called image assembly;
refers to assembling printed matter in a way that results in pages appearing
in correct sequence. imposition process see also backing up, folding, form,
make-ready, manufacturing order signature.
Impression Cylinder the cylinder
or flat bed of a printing press that holds paper while an inked image from
the blanket is pressed upon it. see also offset planographic.
Inch A unit of measurement equal to six
(6) picas or seventy two (72) points.
Index Paper a stiff, inexpensive paper
with a smooth finish. The high bulk but low weight of this paper makes it
a popular choice for business reply cards. The basic size of index paper
is 25.5"x30.5". see also basic size.
Ingredients of Paper all the materials
used to make the mat of fibers known as paper. The one essential ingredient
is cellulose fiber. The rest of the ingredients enhance the paper adding
body, reducing cost, or changing color. see also cellulose fiber, clay,
filler, furnish, papermaking, pigment pulp, resin, sizing.
Ink a combination of pigment, pigment carrier
or vehicle, and additives. Careful ink formulation by the printer can reduce
or prevent smudging, unevenness, picking, and additional printing problems
associated with ink. The ink used for a particular job depends on the paper
specified and the printing process used. see also dry trap, tack, UV ink,
vegetable-based ink, wet trap.
Ink Absorption capacity to accept or absorb
ink. see also absorbency, ink holdout.
Ink Holdout resistance to the penetration
of ink. Coated papers tend to have good ink holdout. The ink pigments sit
on the surface of the coating, and are not absorbed into the spaces between
the paper fibers. This minimizes dot spread and results in a sharp image.
Uncoated papers tend to absorb ink into the sheet, but printers can compensate
for this and still produce a very bright, sharp image on uncoated paper.
see also coated paper, dot compensation, ink absorption.
Intaglio a method of printing in which
an image or letter is cut into the surface of wood or metal, creating tiny
wells. Printing ink sits in these wells, and the paper is pressed onto the
plate and into the wells, picking up the ink. see also engraving, gravure,
Jog to shake a stack of papers, either
on a machine or by hand, so that the edges line up. Printers jog the paper
to get rid of any dust or particles, and to ensure proper feeding into the
JPEG Joint Photographic Electronic Group.
A common standard for compressing image data.
Kern To adjust the lateral space between
Kraft Paper a paper manufactured using
kraft pulp, usually noted for its strength. In the kraft pulping process,
fiber is separated from lignin by cooking wook chips with steam and pressure.
see also bleached kraft, lignin, pulping wood.
Laid Finish a paper with a translucent
pattern of lines running both parallel to, and across the grain. Laid finished
paper like Champion Mystique is created by dropping a patterned dandy roll
onto the paper machine while the paper is still wet. see also dandy roll,
Laser Compatible paper that performs on
a laser printer or copier. Laser compatible paper has good dimensional stability
that keeps it from curling, changing shape, and causing paper jams in printers
and copiers. All of the premium writing grades that Champion manufactures
are laser compatible. see also dimensional stability, xerography.
Leading The space, measured in points,
between consecutive lines of type. (Original name derived from the strips
of lead placed between lines of hot type in the early 1900's.)
Letterpress a relief printing method. Printing
is done using cast metal type or plates on which the image or printing area
are raised above the nonprinting areas. Ink rollers touch only the top surface
of the raised areas; the nonprinting areas are lower and do not receive
ink. The inked image is transferred directly to the page, resulting in type
of images that may actually be depressed or debossed into the paper by the
pressure of the press. see also printing methods, relief.
Lignin the natural, glue-like substance
that holds together the cellulose fibers of wood plants. Lignin that is
left in pulp causes paper to age and yellow over time. see also acid-free,
cellulose fiber, groundwood paper.
Like-sided paper that has the same appearance
and characteristics on both sides (the opposite of two-sided). see also
twin-wire machine, two-sidedness.
Linen Finish a paper finish that is similar
to the texture of linen fabric, such as Champion Carnival Linen. Linen finishes
are embossed after the paper comes off the paper machine. see also embossing,
Lines Per Inch (lpi) the number of lines
in an inch, as found on the screens that create halftones and four-color
process images (for example, "printed 175-line screen"). The more
lines per inch, the more detailed the printed image will be. With the demand
for computer-generated imagery, the term "dots per inch" (which
refers to the resolution of the output), is replacing the term "lines
per inch." see also dpi, four-color process, halftone, screen .
Litho short for lithography or offset lithography.
Lithography a printing process using flat
surface planographic plates nally stone) that is based on the principle
that oil and water don't mix. The image to be lithographed is created on
the plate with greasy material that repels water. Water is run over the
plate, and the non-image areas absorb it. When the oily ink hits the plate,
it's attracted to the similarly greasy image, and repelled by the rest of
the wet plate. When paper is pressed onto the plate, it picks up the ink
(and a bit of the water). This process is now used primarily for limited-edition
prints. see also offset, planographic, plate, printing process.
Lupe From the German word for magnifying
glass, a lens used by photographers, printers, and designers to examine
details in printed materials.
M weight the weight in pounds of 1,000
sheets (or two standard 500- sheet reams) or paper. On the label of a paper
ream, the M weight is often given after the dimensions of the paper in the
ream: for example, 23"x29"-42M. The capital letter M, like the
Roman numeral M, designates 1,000; the 42 indicates that the 1,000 sheets
weigh 42 lbs. see also basis weight, ream weight, weight.
Machine Coated paper that is coated on
the papermaking machine. see also coated paper.
Machine Finish a paper texture of finish
imparted onto the paper white it's still on the papermaking machine. see
also felt finish, finish, vellum.
Make-ready all the activities involved
in preparing a printing press for a print run, such as setting the registration,
balancing the color, and adjusting the plates and blankets for paper thickness.
see also imposition, impression cylinder, plate, printing methods, registration.
Making Order see manufacturing order manufacturing
order also know as making order. A quantity of paper manufactured to custom
specifications, such as a special weight, color, or size not available as
a standard stocking item. Special order require- ments are necessary, and
should be discussed with a local paper consultant. see also imposition,
paper consultant, stock
Match Color a custom-blended ink that matches
a specified color exactly. Match colors are used to print line copy and
halftones in one, two, three, or occasionally more colors. The specified
colors are chosen from color systems. The most widely used systems are the
PATONE MATCHING SYSTEM, Colorcurve, and Toyo. see also Colorcurve, PANTONE
MATCHING SYSTEM, Toyo.
Match Print A color proofing system developed
by 3M. A high quality proofing system.
Matte Coated a non-glossy coating on paper,
generally used to refer to papers having little or no gloss. A matte coated
sheet is often specified when there is a lot of type, since it makes for
easier reading. see also coated paper, dull coated, finish, gloss.
Mechanical Pulping separating wood fibers
for pulp by grinding wood chips mechani- cally, rather than by using a chemical
Merchant a distributor of papers, often
representing several different paper mills or manufacturers.
Metamerism the tendency of color to change
with the light source in which it's viewed. For example, two reds may appear
to match under fluorescent light, but clash badly in the light of the sun.
Mill the physical site where paper is manufactured;refers
to a company that manufactures paper. Champion premium papers, for example,
are manufactured at the Hamilton, Ohio mill. Champion is also referred to
as a mill.
Mill Broke paper generated at the paper
mill prior to completion of the manufacturing process. Wet mill broke originates
at the wet end of the papermaking machine, while dry mill broke comes from
the dry end of the papermaking machine. see also dry end, wet end
Moire a pattern created by printing several
repetitive designs on top of each other. In four-color process printing,
four screens of col- ored dots print on top of each other. If the angles
of the halftone screens of each of the four colors are not properly aligned
with each other, an undesireble, blurry pattern, called "moire"
appears in the final image; the term is from the watery or wavy pattern
seen on moire silk. see also four-color process, halftone, rosette, screen.
Newsprint Paper a grade of paper
made primarily from groundwook (mechanical) pulp rather than chemical pulp,
resulting in a short lifespan. Newsprint is one of the least expensive printing
papers. see also groundwood paper, pulping wood.
OD100 Process a proprietary term used to
describe Champion's bleaching tech- nology that combines oxygen delignification
and 100% substitu- tion of chlorine dioxide for elemental chlorine. see
also bleach filtrate recycling, elemental chlorine free, oxygen delignification.
Offset Printing (Offset lithography) Currently
the most common commercial printing method, in which ink is offset from
the printing plate to to a second roller then to paper.
Office Reprographic Paper commonly referred
to as reprographic paper, includes a variety of business paper grades (both
cut-size and copier rolls), like bond, mimeo, duplicator, and reproduction
papers. see also bond paper, electronic printing, xerography.
Off-machine Coating coating paper after
it comes off the papermaking machine rather than while it is still on the
machine. Off-machine coaters may be used to add a single layer of coating
to a paper, or to add a second layer to a paper that has already been machine
coated. see also coated paper.
Offset an indirect printing process. Ink
is transferred to paper from a blanket that carries an impression from the
printing plate, rather than directly from the printing plate itself. Generally,
when we say "offset" we mean "offset lithography," even
though other printing processes, such as letterpress, may also use this
indirect technique. The term offset (or "set off") can also refer
to the smudges cre- ated when ink from one printed sheet transfers to another.
Offset spray is used to prevent this. see also impression cylinder, lithography,
planographic, plate, printing processes.
Offset Papers book and text weight papers
that are made to withstand the rigors of offset printing. These papers are
more resistant to water and less susceptible to picking. Most book and text
grades of paper can be used on offset presses. Often the term "offset"
is used synonymously with "book." The basic size of off- set papers
is 25"x38". see also basic size, book papers, picking, text paper.
Opacity a measure of how opaque a paper
is. The more fibers or fillers a paper has, the more opaque it is, and the
less it allows "show- through" of the printing on the back side
or on the next page. Opacity isn't always determined by thickness or weight;
a thinner paper may have more opacity than a thicker paper if opacifying
thickeners are used. see also calcuim carbonate, fillers, thickness, titanium
Oxygen Delignification a processing step
that takes place after pulping and before bleaching. Oxygen is used to remove
lignin (delignify) resulting in lower chemical usage in the bleach plant.
see also bleaching, lignin, OD100 process.
Pallet a platform with a slatted bottom,
used to hold and ship cartons of paper stacked on top of each other.
PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM the most widely
used system for specifying and blending match colors. The PANTONE MATCHING
SYSTEM identifies more than 700 colors. It provides designers with swatches
for specific colors, and gives printers the recipes for making those colors.
PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM was developed by neither a commercial printer nor
an ink manufacture, leaving the choice of ink brand up to the printer. see
also Colorcurve, match color, Toyo.
Paper a complex matted web of cellulose
Paper Consultant a representative from
a paper mill or merchant who has the expertise to help designers and printers
choose just the right paper for a specific job. see also manufacturing order,
merchant, specifying paper.
Paper Cut the excruciating, often unforseeable,
and usually invisible-to- the-naked-eye cut received when skin slides along
the edge of a piece of paper at just the wrong angle.
Paperboard paper with a caliper greater
than .012 inches, or 12 points. Paperboard is used primarily for packaging
and construction materials. Paperboard doesn't need to have the same white-
ness and brightness as premium printing and writing papers, and because
the process of deinking is less important in its manufacture, it is a perfect
product for using recovered fiber. see also caliper, deinking
Paper-ink Affinity the tendency for paper
and ink to attract and stay attracted to each other. This keeps the ink
on the paper and off the reader's hands or the next sheet. An incompatibility
between ink and paper can cause printing problems. see also dry trap, tack,
Papermaking creating a web of fiber from
plant cellulose (or, less commonly, from synthetic fbers). Papermakers today
follow the same steps that its inventor, Ts'ai Lun, followed almost two
thousand years ago: pulping vegetable matter and leaving the cellulose fibers
behind; mixing the pulp with lots of water; draining it; forming paper on
a sieve-like mold; pressing the paper to remove some of the water; and drying
it to remove the rest of the water. Technology has sped up the process and
helped to improve the smoothness, brightness, and printability of the paper,
but it hasn't changed the essence of papermaking. papermaking process see
also additives, alkaline papermaking, calendering, chemical pulping, deinking,
dry end, drying, felt finish, felt side, Fourdrinier, grain, ingre- dients
of paper, lignin, pulping wood, semi-chemical pulping, supercalender, wet
end, wire side
Papyrus an aquatic plant found in northern
Africa. Although papyrus is considered to be the first paper, it's not,
in the strict definition of the word, paper (which is a matter web of individual
fibers). Rather, early papyrus "paper" was made by peeling the
plant, which is constructed like an onion, and placing one layer on top
of another. The natural juices acted like glue, bonding the layers and leaving
the cellular structure of the plant layers intact. see also scrolls
Parchment a writing substance made from
the skin of animals. Today, parchment-like paper, or vegetable parchment,
is made by dip- ping paper quickly into sulfuric acid, then quickly washing
it and neutralizing the acid. This melts the fibers on the outside, which
in turn coats the other fibers and fills the void between them. The result
is a grease resistant sheet that is difficult to recycle.
PDF Portable Document file. A proprietary
format developed by Adobe Systems for the transfer of designs across multiple
Perfect Binding A book binding process
where pages are glued together and directly to the cover of the book. The
appearance is of a flat spine on the end of the book such as a paperback
Perfecting Press a printing press that
simultaneously prints both sides of a sheet of paper as it passes through
the press. On other presses, printing both sides means running the street
through the press to print one side, allowing the ink to dry, turning the
paper over, and then running the sheet through the press again to print
the other side. see also imposition, printing methods.
Permanence a paper's ability to resist
tears, fading, and general aging over time. The national standard for permanence
requires a pH of 7.5-8.5; at least 2% calcium carbonate; and no ground wood
or unbleached fiber. The standard also has specific fold endurance and tear
resistance requirements. Paper meeting the standard for permanence can be
expected to last more than 100 years. Paper with a pH level of 5.5 or higher
can be expected to last up to 50 years. see also alkaline papermaking, archival
Petroleum-based Ink an ink using petroleum
as the vehicle for carrying the pigment. Ink manufacturers are seeking new
vehicles to reduce the need for petroleum-based solvents, which may be toxic
at high levels. see also ink, vegetable-based ink
pH the measeure of the acidity or alkalinity
of a material. Paper with a pH below 7.0 is considered acidic; paper with
a pH above 7.0 is considered acid-free, or alkaline. see also acid-free
paper, alkaline papermaking, archival paper.
Photo CD A proprietary format developed
by Eastman Kodak for storing photographic images on a compact disc. Usually
35mm format. Images can be easily accessed for use in professional printing.
PhotoCopy A mechanical printing process
that uses a light sensitive printing element, magnetic toner and a heating
element to fuse the toner to the paper.
Photo Illustration An image, primarily
consisting of a photograph or composite image containing a photograph.
Photo Plate A light sensitive printing
plate. The plate is developed like film, then used on a printing press.
Photograph An image or picture made by
exposing light sensitive film with a camera.
Pica A unit of measurement equal to twelve
(12) points or one sixth (1/6) of an inch. Used by designers and other graphics
professional for its precision.
Pick Out a problem on press caused by unevenly
sealed paper, or paper with low bonding strength. The ink "picks"
off weak ares of the paper, lifting coating from a coated stock, or lifting
fibers from an uncoated stock, and transferring them to the printing blanket.
These fibers will eventually be transferred back onto the sheets being printed,
causing inking and surface inconsistencies. see also bonding strength, hickey,
Pick Resistance the ability of paper fibers
to hold together during the printing process. see also bonding strength,
pick out sizing
Picking a problem generally resulting from
using an ink that's too tacky for the paper it's printed on. The ink actually
pulls tiny pieces of the paper off the surface of the sheet. Two types of
picking are fiber bundles and coating picking. Fiber bundles are caused
by weak fiber bond, and coating picking occurs when the adhesive properties
of coating binder aren't strong enough to hold up the high tack of the offset
printing process. see also bonding strenght, pick out, sizing
Pigment a material, such as titanium dioxide,
added to pulp before it is formed into paper. White pigments boost brightness
and opaci- ty; colored pigments and dyes control the shade or change the
color see also fluorescent dye, ingredients of paper, opacity, titanium
Pixel Depth The amount of data used to
describe each colored dot on the computer screen. i.e. Monochrome is 1 bit
deep. Greyscale is 8 bits deep. RGB is 24 bits deep. Images to be printed
as CMYK separation should be 32 bits deep.
Planographic a method for printing ink
onto paper, where the image sits on the same surface as the printing plate.
The image area is greased to attract ink, while the rest of the plate attracts
water and repels ink. As the paper is pressed onto the flat surface of the
plate, it picks up ink from the greasy image areas and a small bit of water
from blank areas. This is the printing process used in lithography and offset
lithography. see also lithography, offset, plate, printing methods.
Plate brief for printing plate, generally
a thin sheet of metal that carries the printing image. The plate surface
is treated or configured so that only the printing image is ink receptive.
see also electronic printing, intaglio, letterpress, lithography, offset,
planographic, printing methods, relief
Plate Ready Film Final photographic film
used to "burn" printing plates.
PMS color (Pantone Matching System) A
proprietary color system for choosing and matching specific spot colors.
Almost all printers worldwide use this system for color matching.
Point in measurements of the thickness
of paper, one point is 1/1000 or .001 inches; measurements of the size of
type, one point is 1/72 inch. see also caliper, thickness
Porosity refers to the openness or compactness
of the fibers in a paper, is measured by the ability of air to pass through
the sheet. The more open a paper is, the greater its porosity.
Pre-consumer Recovered Paper paper recovered
after the papermaking process, but before use by a consumer. see also recovered
paper, recycled content paper, recycled paper
Post-consumer Recovered Paper paper material
recovered after being used by a consumer. see also recovered paper, recycled
content paper, recycled paper
PPI paper per inch, or the number of sheets
in a one-inck stack of paper; used to describe the bulk of a paper. see
also bulk, caliper, thickness.
Precision Sheeting converting rolls of
paper into finished sheet sizes in a single operation.
PrePress The various printing related
services, performed before ink is actually put on the printing press. (i.e.
stripping, scanning, color separating, etc. . .)
Press Proof a test printing of a subject
prior to the final production run. Press proofs are generally printed on
the paper stock that will be used for the finished project. A few sheets
are run as a final check before printing the entire job.
Printability how well a paper performs
with ink on press. Absorbency, smoothness, ink holdout, and opacity all
affect printability. see also absorbency, dimensional stability, ink holdout,
opacity, relative humidity
Printing The process of applying images
to a variety of surfaces. Some printing processes include: offset lithography,
thermography, la gravuer, letterpress, silkscreen, digital, laser, dye sub,
Print Quality the overall excellence of
a printed piece. Paper, ink, press, and the skill of the press operators
all affect print quality. see also printability.
Printing Methods a means or tool for placing
ink on paper. Most printing is done with a plate. The four main types of
printing methods are relief, where words or images are raised above the
surface of the plate; intaglio, where they are etched through the surface;
plano- graphic, on the same plane as the surface; and stencil, or screen
printing, cut below the plate surface. Words and images may also be "printed"
electronically, using photocopiers and inkjet printers. see also electronic
printing, intaglio, letterpress, lithography, offset, planographic, plate,
relief, screen printing, stencil, waterless printing, web press
Process Colors the four process colors:
magenta (process red), cyan (process blue), yellow, and black used to print
four-color images. see also color separating, four-color process, subtractive
Process Color The mechanical process of
reproducing a full color image with the three primary subtractive color
inks (CMYK/ Cyan, Magenta,Yellow and Black) and black. When viewed under
a lupe, the individual color halftone dots can be seen in a process color
Production Artist (Paste-up Artist) A
skilled laborer who produces finished camera ready or plate ready artwork
from the visual elements and instructions provided by the designer or client.
Pt. abbreviation for "point."
see also point
Pulp a wet slurry of fibers and water
that is the basic ingredient of paper. see also cellulose fiber, pulping
wood, slurry, wet end
Pulping Wood transforming wood, the raw
material of most paper, into pulp. Pulping breaks wood apart, separating
the rows of cellulose fibers that are stuck together with lignin. These
separated fibers will later create the matted web of fibers we know as paper.
Paper may be made with pulp from just one of the following processes, or
by mixing mechanical and chemical pulps. types of pulping techniques see
also cellulose fiber, freesheet, groundwood paper, lignin, papermaking q.html
Quadratone a black and white image printed
with four screens and four colors, such as one or more blacks and different
shades of gray, used to enrich the contrast between light and dark ares.
see also continuous tone, duotone, halftone, screen, tritone
Rag Paper paper with at least 25% and
as much as 100% cotton fibers. see also cotton paper
Ream a package containing 500 sheets of
Ream Weight the actual weight in pounds
of a ream (500 sheets) of paper. see also actual weight, basis weight, weight
Recovered Paper paper tha has been separated,
diverted, or removed from the solid waste stream.
Recycable, recycled paper, recycled paper
recyclable suited for recycling. This term may be misleading. For exam-
ple, it may be physically possible to recycle a given material, but if it
is too costly to do so, or if a collection process is not in place, recycling
may be impossible or economically not feasible.
Recycled Content Paper a paper product
containing some, but consisting of less than 100% recovered fiber. Champion
Carnival is an example of a recycled content paper. see also deinking, pre-consumer
recovered paper, post-consumer recovered paper, recycled content paper
Recycled Paper a paper product consisting
of 100% recovered fiber. Recovered fiber includes pre- and/or post-consumer
sources. Champion Benefit is an example of a !00% recycle paper. see also
deinking, pre-consumer recovered paper, post-consumer recovered paper, recycled
Refining the process of cutting, breaking,
and flattening the cellulose fibers in pulp. In order to form a strong,
flexible paper, pulp fibers need to be flattened and frayed. The refiner
has metal discs that can be adjusted to create longer or shorter fibers.
see also hydropulper, papermaking
Refractiveness a measure of how much a
sheet of paper deflects the light that hits it. The more light a sheet deflects,
the greater its refractive- ness, allowing a printed image to be more brilliant
and detailed. see also brightness, whiteness
Registration The process of alignment
of the different elements in a printing job. Such as the different colored
inks on a print job, so they are correctly printed next to each other or
over each other . (i.e. If the inks can be seen to overlap improperly or
to leave white gaps on the page, the printing is said to be "out of
registration" or "poorly registered".)
Relative Humidity balance the relative
humidity of the pressroom compared to the relative humidity of the paper
to be printed. Relative humidity is a mea- sure of how much moisture air
or paper can hold versus how much it is actually holding at a given temperature.
Before print- ing a job, the printer must "cure" the paper by
letting it sit, wrapped, in the pressroom for a determined amount of time.
This will bring the paper to the same temperature and humidity as the pressroom,
helping to prevent several printing problems. For instance, ink on cold
paper takes longer to dry than ink on room-temperature paper. Ink on dry
paper may "chalk" if the dry paper absorbs the liquid in the pigment
before the solid pigments adhere to the paper. Paper with too much humidity
will expand, causing it to wrinkle on press. This can cause misalignment
and a lack or registration in the printing. see also registration
Relief a method for printing ink on paper,
using type of images that rise above the surface of the printing plate.
Ink sits on top of these raised surfaces, and as the paper is pressed onto
them it picks up ink. Letterpress, flexography, and rubber stamps all use
relief plates. In letterpress, intense pressure can cause images to be slightly
debossed or depressed below the surface of the paper. see also flexography,
letterpress, plate, printing methods
Reprographic paper see office reprographic
Resilience the ability of paper to return
to its original form after being stressed by bending, stretching, or compressing
during the printing and finishing processes. see also bonding strength,
dimensional stability, runnability, tensile, strength
Resin a generic term referring to the materials
used by paper manufac- tures to "size" paper. Rosin, a natural
resin from pine trees, is used in the manufacture of acidic paper. Synthetic
resins are used in the manufacture of alkaline and acid-free papers. see
also acid-free, alkaline papermaking, alum, ingredients of paper, rosin,
RGB Red Green Blue, the colors used by
a computer monitor to create color images on the screen. When all three
colors are combined over each other the color of light is white.
Rosette the formation created by the dots
that make up four-color images. The dots, in magenta (red), cyan (blue),
yellow, and black, overlap each other in a cluster. Because the dots are
not perfectly round, and because they are turned at angles to each other,
this cluster resembles the arrangement of petals in a rose. see also four-color
Rosin a natural resin from pine trees,
used to size acidic paper. see also ingredients of paper, resin.
Runnability the ease with which a paper
moves through a printing press. For example, offset lithography puts more
stress on paper than other printing processes because of: how the paper
moves through the press; the great amount of water used in the process;
and the tackiness of the inks that are used. In order to have good runnability,
paper for offset printing must be strong, have great tear resistance, and
possess good dimensional stability. It must also be water resistant and
have a strong surface so the paper doesn't pick. Runnability is also a term
for measuring the number of mechanical web breaks per 1,000 rolls of paper
run on a press. see also dimensional stability, offset, printability.
Saddle Stitch A book binding process where
pages are stapled together through the spine of the book. Tradionally performed
on V shaped saddle. Many magazines are saddle stiched or stapled.
Sans Serif A type face that has no tails
or curled points (serifs) at the ends.
Scaling Images Here is one of my favorite
ways to scale a photo or graphic for the printer, it is a simple formula
that is pretty much foolproof. Using a pica ruler, points, or even inches
if you wish but in decimals points only.
SIZE TO ________ Divided by: SIZE FROM __________ percent key = ________
Here is an example: scaling TO 4.5 inches divided FROM 9 inches, percent
= 50 percent.
Scoring pressing a chanel into a sheet
of paper to allow it to fold more easily. Scoring and pressing the paper
fibers together creates an emossed channel that does two things: acts as
a guide for easi- er folding, and creates a hinge that keeps the fiber stretch
short. The score should run parallel to the paper grain; the thicker the
paper, the wider the score should be. Paper should be folded with the scored
side on the outside, making two short stretches rather than one long one.
The outcome is a straight, durable fold that doesn't crack or break. see
also finishing, folding, grain
Screen the lined glass, now called contact
film, through which images are photographed to create halftones. Shooting
through the mesh of a screen breaks an image into tiny dots. The closer
the lines of the screen, the smaller the dots and the more dots per inch;
the farther apart the lines of the screen, the bigger the dots and the fewer
the dots per inch. The higher the dots per inch, the smaller the dots are,
therefore creating a finer, crisper image. The coarseness or fineness of
the screen is measured in the number of horizontal and vertical lines per
inch. The less a paper absorbs and spreads ink, the finer the screen that
can be used. Newspapers use coarse screens with 55 to 85 lines per inch.
Most trade publications use 85 to 110 lines. With traditional printing,
a coated paper can hold the small dots from a 200-line screen. With waterless
printing, the paper can hold the dots from an even finer screen, 400 lines
and greater. Though this approaches the quality of continuous tone, it is
hard for the eye to discern the differences in resolution above 200 lines
per inch. see also absorbency, continuous tone, dot gain, dpi, stochastic.
Screen Printing a printing process also
called silk screening, where ink is trans- ferred through a porous screen,
such as nylon, onto the surface to be decorated. An emulsion or stencil
is used to block out the negative, or non-printing areas of the screen.
A squeegee forces ink through th eopen areas of the screen and onto the
paper, plastic, cardboard, wood, fabric, glass, or other material. see also
printing process, stencil.
Script A type face that mimics the appearance
of hand written text.
Scrolls long sheets of papyrus, parchment,
or paer rolled for storage. see also papyrus, parchment.
Self Cover a booklet having a cover made
of the same paper as the inside or text pages.
Semi-chemical Pulping using chemicals and
mechanical grinding to separate the cellu- lose fibers of wood. Because
this pulping process doesn't remove lignin, it isn't generally used for
fine printing and writing papers. It's used instead for papers not requiring
permanence. see also pulping wood, cellulose fibers, lignin.
Serif The curls and points that appear
as outward lateral extensions of the bottoms and tops of letterforms on
some type faces. Many designers consider serif type used for body text for
easy readability. Times Roman is a well known serit typefont.
Service Bureau The facility that provides
professional services to graphics and printing professionals especially
related to computer output. (i.e. plate ready film, matchprints, colorkeys,
Shade the color depth and hue in comparison
to papers that are the same color; also used to describe the color achieved
by adding dye to pulp slurry. There is a wide shade variety in white papers,
as well as in colored papers.
Sheet-fed Press a press that prints single
sheets of paper, rather than a continu- ous roll or web of paper. A sheet-fed
press prints more slowly than a web press, and is typically used for shorter
runs. see also offset, web paper, web press
Sheetwise see imposition
Sheffield a test used to measure the smoothness
of paper by measuring the rate of air flow over the surface of the sheet.
The lower the number, the smoother the sheet. see also smooth finish, smoothness
Show-through see opacity
Signature the collated pages of one folded
and trimmed form, making up one section of a bound book. see also binding,
form, imposition, trimming
Silk Screen see screen printing
Sizing a Resin, such as rosin, added to
pulp before it's formed into paper, or added to the surface of the paper
after it's dry. Sizing acts as a glue to keep the fibers of the finished
paper tight, since loose fibers on the surface of the paper can cause printing
problems. Sizing also helps the finished paper repel water, which is an
especially important property for stock that will be used for offset printing.
see also bonding strength, ingredients of paper, resin, rosin
Skid a platform built with a solid wood
bottom, for holding stacks of paper not packed in cartons. Paper may be
ordered in skids or cartons. When printers are printing a large job, they
generally prefer skids to cartons.
Slurry a thin, watery mixture. The mixture
of pulp and water that is poured onton the papermaking machine is often
referred to as slurry. see also headbox, hydorpulper, papermaking, wet end.
Spot Color Single colors applied to printing
when process color is not necessary (i.e. one, two and three color printing),
or when process colors need to be augmented (i.e. a fluorescent pink headline
or a metallic tint).
Spread 1) A design that encompasses two
or more facing pages (i.e. the center spread in the morning newspaper)
Spread 2) Spreading the ink beyond the
edge of an object so that there is no gap between it and the next colored
object. "Choke and Spread" are common methods of trapping elements
of a printing job.
Smooth Finish paper finished to a Shefield
smoothness between 50 and 150. see also finish, Sheffield, smoothness
Smoothness the surface property of paper
that desribes its degree of uniform evenness and flatness. When printing,
the smoother the paper, the better the ink dot formation and the sharper
the image. see also cast-coating, coated paper, Sheffield, smooth finish,
super- calendar, uncoated paper
Softwood Pulp pulp made from coniferous
trees (evergreen tress with cones and needles, such as pine and fir trees).
Paper is often made using a blend of pulps; softwood pulp has long fibers,
giving paper strength; hardwood fibers are short, lending smoothness, bulk,
and body. see also hardwood pulp, pulping wood
Specifying Paper choosing the appropriate
paper for a specific printing job, in order to meet its individual design,
printing, handling, and economic requirements. Designers and printers are
frequently assisted by a paper merchant or a paper mill consultant when
choosing a paper. see also paper consultant.
Spot Color Single colors applied to printing
when process color is not necessary (i.e. one, two and three color printing),
or when process colors need to be augmented (i.e. a fluorescent pink headline
or a metallic tint).
Spread 1) A design that encompasses two
or more facing pages (i.e. the center spread in the morning newspaper)
Spread 2) Spreading the ink beyond the
edge of an object so that there is no gap between it and the next colored
object. "Choke and Spread" are common methods of trapping elements
of a printing job.
Stencil a sheet of plastic, paper, or
other material with letters or an image cut out of it. When placed on a
surface and inked, it reproduces the cut-away images onto the material behind
it. see also printing methods, screen printing
Stochastic a relatively new method for
creating halftones. Rather than producing the regularly space dots of lined
screens, stochastic screening generates randomly placed dots. Because the
generation of the dots is frequently modulated, the technique is also called
FM screening. Registration on press is slightly more difficult than with
lined screens, but the colors rests can be brilliant. see also continuous
tone, dpi, halftone, registration, screen
Stock Paper or other material that will
be printed. To a paper mill, a "stock item" is a manufactured
item that is invertoried, as opposed to a "manufacturing order,"
which is custom made. see also manufacturing order.
Style Sheet A method of designating the
type faces to be used in a design. i.e. Headlines, captions and body text,
this is listed on a "sheet", usually in a "floating pallet"
on a program like Pagemaker.
Subtractive Colors the three primary process
printing colors; magenta, cyan, and yellow, as opposted to the three additive
primary colors of green, red, and blue. Color separations are created by
shooting or scanning a color through filters of additive colors to generate
halftones of subtractive colors. Subtracting the additive color of green
from white light leaves magenta; subtracting red leaves cyan; and subtracting
blue leaves yellow. The subtractive color halftones are then combined on
a printing press to create full- color images. see also color separation,
four-color process, halftone
Supercalender Alternating steel and fiber-covered
calendar rolls that increase a sheet's gloss and smoothness. The supercalender
is a separate piece of equipment located close to the dry end of the paper
machine. see also calendering, gloss, papermaking, smoothness
Swatchbook a booklet containing paper
samples and paper specifications for a line of paper. Champion produces
individual swatchbooks for each of its fine printing papers.
Tack Stickiness. Tack is a critical property
of the ink used in lithogra- phy. Because the ink sits on a flat surface,
it needs internal cohesion; in other words, it needs to stick to itself
so that it doesn't run all over the plate. However, too much tack can cause
it to pull the paper apart. When printing two or more ink colors in line,
the ink tack and sequence must be adjusted in order for the ink to adhere
to each other as well as to the paper. see also dry trap, lithography, plate,
Tag paper a heavy utility grade of paper
used to print tags, such as the store tags on clothing. Tag paper must be
strong and durable, yet have good affinity for printing inks.
Tear Strength a measure of how likely
a paper will continue to tear once started. Tear strength will be different
with and agaist the grain of paper. Paper that will be punched should have
good tear strength. see also bonding strength, grain
Tensile Strength a measure of how likely
a paper is to break when pulled at opposite ends, in oppostie directions.
A web offset paper must have good tensile strength if it is to withstand
the high speed of the printing press. see also bonding strenght, web break,
web paper, web press
Text Paper premium uncoated printing paper
of fine quality, manufactured in weights suitable for the text of books
or brochures. Text papers are made in a wide variety of finishes, including
smooth, antique, vellum, laid, felt, and emobossed. They are character-
ized by execellent folding qualitys, printablity, and durability. Text papers
are used most often for books, annual reports, brochures, booklets, advertising
collateral material, and announcements, and have a basic size of 25"x38".
see also basic size, book paper, cover paper, offset paper
Thermography a finishing applied after
printing that creates the raised effect of engrved printing. Special inks
are used during offset printing; a poweder is applied to the paper; and
the paper is passed through a heater. see also engraving, offset, printing
Thickness the thickness of a single piece
of paper, as measured in thou- sandths of an inch, called "caliper."
Thickness measurements define the bulkiness of a sheet of paper, but the
actual number of sheets in an inch-high stack of paper is referred to as
PPI, or pages per inch. see also bulk, caliper, ppi
TIFF Tagged Image File Format, a bitmapped
file format used for the reproduction of digitally scanned images such as
photographs, illustrations & logos.
Tint to vary a color by adding white.
Also, a very light or delicate variation of a color.
Titanium Dioxide an exceptionally opaque
and expensive compound used as a white pigment and opcifier in papermaking.
Elemental titanium is a lustrous, lightweight, white metal with exceptional
strength. see also ingredients of paper, opacity, pigment
Tooth refers to paper's surface roughness,
a characteristic that allows it to take up ink.
Touchplate in four-color process printing,
an additional fifth plate of ink that adds more of one color to enhance
the image. see also four-color process, subtractive color
Toyo a system used for color matching.
see also Colorcurve, match color, PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM
Trapping printing ink over previously
printed ink. Trapping is also used to describe the very slight overlapping
of adjacent colors. Trapping color is achieved by use of chokes and spreads.
see also dry trap, tack, wet trap.
Trim Size the final size of a printed
piece once it's been cut to specification.
Trimming cutting paper after printing
to make all sheets the same or a specified size. After binding printed papers,
the head, foot, and edge of a book are often trimmed in a guillotine to
make all the papes even. The inner papes of each signature have a tighter
fold and will be slightly longer than the outer pages. see also finishing,
guillotine, signature, trim size
Tritone a black and white image printed
with three screens and three colors, such as one black and two grays, used
to enrich the con- trast between light and dark areas. see also continuous
tone, duotone, halftone, quadratone, screen
Twin-wire Machine a paper making machine
with two continuous forming wires, rather than just one. Twin-wires were
designed to create a less two-sided paper than manufactured on a Fourdrinier
paper machine. Other techniques for reducing two-sidedness have since been
developed, enabling paper manufactures to created paper on single-wire machines
with little side-to-side variation. see also felt side, Fourdrinier, two-sidedness,
Two-sidedness the tendency of some papers
to have slightly different character- istics and printing results from side-to-side.
see also felf side, like-sided, wire side
Uncoated Freesheet uncoated paper containing
no more than 10% mechanical wood pulp. Most uncoated freesheet paper is
entirely free of mechani- cal wood pulp. Most uncoated printing and writing
papers are classified into the broader category of uncoated freesheet. see
also mechanical pulp, pupling wood, uncoated paper
Uncoated Groundwood all paper, that isn't
coated, containing more than 10% ground- wood fiber in its furnish. see
also furnish, groundwood paper, newsprint paper, uncoated paper
Uncoated Paper paper that doesn't have
coating. Uncoated papers are manu- factured in a great variety of finishes,
colors, and weights, and offer the versatility needed to meet the creative
and practical demands of most print jobs. see also book paper, cotton paper,
cover paper, furnish, offset papers, text papers, vellum
UV Coating a very slick, glossy coating
applied to the printed paper sur- face and dried on press with ultraviolet
(UV) light. The slick surface of UV coating makes it eye catching, and therefore
very popular for printing the covers of paperback novels. Because UV coating
can cause slight variations in match colors, con- sulting with an ink manufacturer
or printer will yield best results.
UV Ink ink specially formulated to dry
quickly with ultraviolet (UV) light while still on press. UV drying improves
turnaround time because it eliminates waiting for the first side to dry
before printing the second side. This eliminates the need for the paper
to pass through the press more than once. see also dry trap, ink, wet trap
Varnish a coating printed on top of a
printed sheet to protect it, add a finish, and/or add a tinge of color.
An entire sheet may be varnished, or certain areas, like halftones, may
be spot varnished to add emphasis and appeal.
Vegetable-based Ink and ink using vegetable
oil, rather than petroleum solvents, as the vehicle for carrying pigment.
Vegetable ink colors tend to be more vibrant than petroleum-based inks,
but may take longer to dry. This book, Words on Paper, is printed with soy-
based ink, a type of vegetable-based ink. see also ink, petroleum-based
Vellum an uncoated paper finish that is
fairly even, but not quite as even as a smooth finish. Vellum is probably
the most popular finish for uncoated paper. see also finish, uncoated paper
Velox a paper type imaging material created
by using a large printers camer and exposing the paper to light through
a lense. Used for camera ready logos, half tones.Virgin fiber fiber that
has never been used before in the manufacture of paper or other products.
Washing see deinking
Waterless Printing a printing process
that runs on offset lithography presses, but without using water. The non-image
areas of the plate are coated with silicone, allowing the ink to run off
freely into shallow wells, in the plate. Because finer dots can be used
in waterless printing, the image is very detailed. The cost for this printing
process is high, but the results can be magnificent. see also dryography,
Watermark a mark in fine papers, imparted
during manufacture, that identifies a paper. It doesn't leave an impression
in the paper, instead it leaves behind a translucent mark. see also dandy
Web a roll of paper. see also web paper
Web Break a tear through a roll of paper,
either while it is being manufac- tured at the mill, or while it is running
through a printing press. When the web breaks, either at the mill or on
press, machinery must be shut down, causing a loss of production time. see
also papermaking, web paper, web press
Web Paper paper that comes in a roll rather
than in sheets. A web press runs this paper, folding and/or cutting it after
it is printed. web press a press specifically designed to print rolls of
paper called webs, rather than sheets. A web press runs much faster than
a sheet- feb press: as many as 40,000 images per hour versus a maxi- mum
of about 14,000 per hour on a sheet-feb press. see also offset, sheet-fed
press, web, web paper.
Web Press A high speed printing press
that prints on both sides of a continuous roll of paper. Web presses are
used for high volume printing such as newspapers and magazines.
Weight the tonnage or poundage of a quantity
of paper. The weight of paper may be expressed as basis weight, ream weight,
M weight, or grammage. Basis weight is the weight in pounds of 500 sheets
of paper cut to a given standard size (called basic size), such as 25"x38",
depending on the grade of paper. Ream weight is the actual weight in pounds
of 500 sheets of paper, regardless of basic size of grade. M weight is the
actual weight of 1,000 sheets of paper. Because this is twice the quantity
of a ream of paper, it is also twice the ream weight. Grammage is a metric
measure similar to the basis weight of paper. Unlike basis weight, which
uses different basic sizes for different grades of paper, grammage always
uses the same sheet size - one square meter - regardless of the paper grade.
see also actual weight, basis weight, grammage, M weight, ream weight
Wet End the front end of the papermaking
machine, including the head- box, wire, and presses. Papaer is more water
than fiber in this section of the machine. see also dry end, headbox, papermaking,
Wet Trap Printing a layer of wet ink over,
or adjacent to, a previous layer of wet ink. see also dry trap, tack, trapping
Whiteness the measure of the amount of
light reflected from a sheet of paper. How white a paper is depends on how
evenly it reflects all colors in the visible spectrum. If it reflects more
blue than red and yellow, it will have a cool, blue tinge to it, making
it appear brighter than white. A cool paper will appear brighter than a
similar paper with a warm tinge. A cool or warm tinge doesn't affect paper
quality, but it does create optical impressions. For example, in color printing
with blues and blacks predominating, a cool white sheet tends to brighten
the colors. But color printing with reds, oranges, and yellows predominating,
a neutral or warm white sheet tends to make the colors apprear clearer and
stronger. see also brightness, fluorescent dye, refractiveness
Wire Side the bottom side of the paper
that comes in contact with the wire (now called the forming fabric) of the
paper machine during the papermaking process. The top side of the paper
is called the felt side. As the water drains through the wire during manufacture,
it carries fibers, fillers, and other chemicals with it, depositing more
of them on the wire side than on the felt side of the paper. This can result
in the wire and felt sides having slightly different textures. see also
felt side, papermaking, tooth, two-sidedness
Work and Back see imposition
Work and Tumble see imposition
Work and Turn see imposition
Wove Finish uncoated paper that has an
even finish with slight toothiness. see also finish, tooth
Zapateado the rhythmic stamping of the
heels, characteristic of Spanish flamenco dances - can be practiced while
reading this web page!
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