Displaced Persons Camp Money

Displaced Persons Camp Money

The Numismatist, 1984

Pages 1602-1617

Frank Passic ANA 90821
Steven A. Feller ANA 96212

In May 1945 Europe was in chaos. With the fall of the Nazis, Germany was sliced into Allied zones, and the process of rebuilding Europe began. War and its aftermath had uprooted thousands of people from their homes and countries, and many found themselves liberated from Nazi concentration camps with no place to go.

The care of refugees in Europe was handled by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) until 1947, when responsibility was transferred to the International Refugee Organization (IRO), which also was a function of the United Nations. These refugees became known as displaced persons (DPs), and the Allied powers soon realized they had a delicate problem to solve.

Two distinct themes emerged regarding the “repatriation” of the DPs, most of them were house throughout the western zones of Austria and Germany. First, many Jews who survived the Nazi holocaust wished to migrate to Israel, then known as Palestine. However, the British Mandate allowed only 1500 Jews to enter Palestine each month, thus delaying the relocation of Jewish DPs.

This backlog, in turn, created quite a conflict of interests. The control of Jewish DP camps rested with the American-Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (AJDC), which, although organized in cooperation with UNRRA, encouraged migration to Palestine.

Second, while the Jewish people knew where they wanted to be relocated, Eastern Europeans, particularly Lithuanians, had definite ideas about where they did not want to relocate. When the Nazis retreated from Lithuania in 1944, thousands of Lithuanians fled their country in advance of the occupying Soviet army, knowing of the terror to come.

A camp publication features this photograph of "Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia...waiting for the dawn of their independence."

By the end of the war, roughly 70000 Lithuanians had made their way into Germany and Austria. At first, the Allied powers thought these people took up residence in western Germany against their will and that they naturally would prefer to return to their homeland, but such was not the case.

The Allies, including the United States, initially accused Lithuanian DPs of being former Nazi sympathizers. They later realized that the actual reason for their reluctance to return to their country was based on the fact that because they witnessed the Soviet annihilation of Lithuania in 1940-41, they certainly would be executed or deported to Siberia if they set foot on their native soil. Still, to the horror of many, some were forcibly sent back by the Allies, never to be heard from again.

A satirical drawing shows Lithuanians feeing Stalin's rays. The caption translates, "In our land there is still Big Heat."

Accordingly, suspicion and distrust ran high in DP camps housing Lithuanian refugees. A large percentage of the inhabitants were professionals – physicians, engineers, jurists, teachers, public officials, artists and clerks – and would have been targeted instantly by the Soviet occupational regime if they returned home.

Gradually, western nations accepted the reality of the situation and opened their doors to large numbers of immigrants from DP camps. Many DPs made their way to new lives in the United States, Canada, Australia and Great Britain, while Jewish refugees, who before had languished in Hitler’s concentration camps, witnessed the unfolding of the Jewish state of Israel.

Following the war, many DP camps issued their own internal currency, which was used to pay workers and others within their confines. Generally, the money was spent at the canteen or “P.X.” for needed supplies. A virgin field for collectors and researchers alike, DP camp money has caught the attention of numismatists in recent years, particularly as more and more unreported issues appear on the market.

A Lithuanian cartoon depicts DPs "acting on Uncle Truman's cake."

With few exceptions, DP camp money research is scattered, and numismatic information is often incomplete. However, one must bear in mind that each camp’s money was redeemed and destroyed, and residents had little cause to save it. Thus, many notes described in numismatic literature are one-of-a-kind, and all are considered very rare, bringing high premiums in today’s market. Furthermore, it is safe to assume that more previously-unreported issues will appear as surviving DPs die and samples of camp money appear in their estates.

With these things in mind, the authors searched numismatic literature and present here a compilation of all known DP camp monies giving detailed numismatic data when available. In addition, new historical facts based on original research are combined in which the money of each camp was issued and used.

Pictured is Schwarzberg Castle, a 17th century structure that served as the site of a Lithuanian DP camp in Scheinfeld, a small town in Bavaria.

A great majority of DP camp monies reported to date were used by Jews and Lithuanians, and their issues will be presented first. However, this listing also considers “generic” camp money issued by the IRO for use throughout Austria, and previously unknown Polish DP camp money from Luitpold, Germany. The authors welcome reports of camp money issued for use by people of other nationalities.

Jewish Camp Money


J-1. American-Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

Founded during World War I, the American-Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (AJDC) spent $342 million dollars from 1945 to 1952 to care for and rehabilitate approximately 250000 Jews. Two distinct issues of camp money were printed by this group exclusively for use in Europe, and a third was printed for the island of Cyprus.

On September 7, 1945, the AJDC Central Committee was recognized by American authorities as officially representing liberated Jews in Germany’s U.S. zone and administering funds provided by various sources. In 1947 the AJDC issued a 50-unit note bearing a portrait of Theodore Herzl, the father of Political Zionism. The bilingual text – Yiddish ad English – is printed in black and reads “A.J.D.C. Central Committee, November 1947, Cheshvan 5708.” Serial numbers are printed in red.

50 units
120 x 65mm

J-2 Employment Board for Jewish Displaced Persons

The Employment Board for Jewish Displaced Persons – U.S. Zone German issued money in cooperation with the AJDC and the Jewish Agency for Palestine. Dated 1947, the notes are trilingual - Hebrew, English and Yiddish – and were issued in denominations of 1, 10, 50 and 100 points. All display the Star of David.

In his article, “Jewish Banknotes of Postwar Europe,” Dr. Samuel Halperin writes:

They were used as payment for work supported by the Joint and the Jewish Agency for Palestine. Both organizations have their initials shown in English and their short titles, “Joint,” and “Sochnut” shown in Yiddish. 1

In Das Lagergeld der Konzentrations – un D.P. Lager, 1933-1945, Albert Pick and Carl Siemsen list two notes dated 1947, located in Germany unknown. 2 Issued by the Employment Board for Jewish Displaced Persons, the notes appear in this reference as numbers 134 and 135, and are referred to as 1 and 500 notes, respectively (no denomination unit or other information is provided). It appears, however, that these may have been issued with those listed by Dr. Halperin.

1 point

10 points
40 x 20mm
50 points

100 points
120 x 65mm

UNRRA Food Stores employees at the Lithuanian DP camp in Seedorf.

J-3. Deggendorf

Serving as a transit station for 700 refugees awaiting passage to Palestine, the Deffendorf Jewish Community DP Camp No. 7 was established on February 20, 1945, in Bavaria at the site of a former Nazi concentration camp. The community issued money in denominations of 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents, and 1, 5, 10 dollars. Each note was rubber-stamped with “Jewish Committee, D.P. Camp 7 Deggendorf,” and reads “Deggendorf Jewish Committee Treasurer.” Although undated they are believed to have been introduced in 1945.

5 cents Blue 60 x 40mm
10 cents Red

25 cents Blue

50 cents Red 160 x 65mm
1 dollar Blue

5 dollars Blue

10 dollars Blue 160 x 66mm

J-4. Feldafing

Located 30 kilometers southwest of Munich, the Feldafing Jewish D. P. Camp issued money bearing the inscription “Series of 1946.” Notes were circulated in denominations of 25 and 50 cents, and 1, 5 and 10 dollars.

25 cents Blue 90 x 85mm
50 cents Green

1 dollar Green

5 dollars Blue

10 dollars Orange 160 x 70mm


J-5. American-Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

The AJDC also issued money in point (einheit) denominations for use in Austria. All notes bear the same text – “American Joint Distribution Committee, Works Program, Austrian, J.D. Billow, Chief, Austrian Operations,” and were issued in 1, 5 and 10-point denominations. The 1-point note is erroneously listed as “1 Unity” (No. 139) by Pick and Siemsen. 3




1 point


70 x 40mm

5 points


70 x 40mm

10 points


70 x 40mm

J-6. Wegscheid

Situated near Linz, the Wegscheid camp issued money in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 20 (units not given). All notes depict the Star of David.

Camp administrators draw rations from the canteen.


J-7. American-Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

Perhaps the most well-known of the Jewish camp monies is that used in the internment camps on Cyprus. As mentioned earlier, the exodus of Jews from Europe to the Promised Land was thwarted by Great Britain, which blockaded the shores of Palestine to prevent thousands of Jews from entering the country. In August 1946 Great Britain’s foreign minister, Ernest Bevin, ordered that boats of immigrants be intercepted and escorted to the island of Cyprus, where the “illegal” Jews were placed in internment camps. The American-Jewish Joint Distribution Committee was allowed to enter the camps and provide residents with aid and relief. 4

British authorities approved the use of internal money as payment to residents who worked within the camps. Although more-accurately called “internment money,” the Cyprus notes are considered an extension of the displaced persons saga.

Three separate issues of notes were printed in three denominations – 1, 2 and 5 shillings – by the Sinai Printers of Jerusalem and were designed by a Mr. Schweig. The uniface issues were released in 1947-48 and features a background of security printing in Hebrew that translates “The United American Jewish Committee for Assistance (Joint).”


A blue control letter, either A, B or C, and a black serial number appear in the lower left corner of each note. The denomination also is printed in black, and the signature of the director of the AJDC, Morris Laub, can be seen in the lower right corner.

With the second issue, nervous British authorities demanded the deletion of “…or for cash in Jerusalem,” and changed it to read “good for purchase in the canteens.” The denomination is printed in blue, and the control letter in Hebrew. The Hebrew legend at the top translates THE UNITED AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR ASSISTANCE (JOINT) CYPRUS, with the English legend stating, AMERICAN JOINT DISTRIBUTINO COMMITTEE, CYPRUS.

On the third issue the Hebrew legend was changed slightly to read THE AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR ASSISTANCE (JOINT) CYPRUS.

When the camps were disbanded in March 1949, the outstanding money was exchanged for cash in Israel by the AJDC. Accordingly, these notes are rare and bring a high premium.

First issue

1 shilling Blue 1-12000
2 shillings Yellow 1-12000
5 shillings Pink 1-12000
Second issue

1 shilling Blue 1-6000 A
2 shillings Yellow 1-6000 B
5 shillings Green 1-6000 C
Third issue

1 shilling Blue 6001-12000 A
2 shillings Yellow 6001-12000 B
5 shillings Green 6001-12000 C

Lithuanian Camp Money

L-1. Scheinfeld

Atop a sandy slope on the outskirts of Scheinfeld, a small town in Bavaria halfway between Nuremberg and Worzburg, sits a 17th century castle built by the Schwarzenberg family. It was in the imposing structure that a Lithuanian DP encampment was established n April 28, 1946, to house 1500 Lithuanians transferred from the DP camp in Regensburg. The camp was headed by an American reserve officer of Lithuanian descent, Stanley B. Milnus, whose parents had come from the Vilnuis region of Lithuania; chairman of the camp’s committee was Professor Ceslovas Masaitis, a Lithuanian mathematician.

Administered and occupied entirely by Lithuanians, the Scheinfeld camp was liquidated in 1949 after its administrator, Steponas Birutis, left for America. Committee chairman Masaitis later instituted a Lithuanian fraternal order in the United States that carried the “Scheinfeld” name. 5

The DP issues of Scheinfeld, Team 569, are perhaps the most familiar of the Lithuanian camp money. Originally unknown in numismatic circles, the money suddenly appeared on the market in the early 1970s, when a small hoard surfaced in England. Because the specimens were in Uncirculated condition, many doubted if the money was actually put to use. Furthermore, interviews with former DPs reveal that German and military monies circulated within the camp, no one remembered ever seeing camp money.

However, recently-located UNRRAZ records for the Scheinfeld camp have shed some light on the mysteries surrounding the currency used in camp. In a report dated June 15, 1946, UNRRA Team 569 Director Anton A. Pritchard stated:

In the month since the camp has been opened, the following welfare projects have been organized:

1) A camp newspaper is published daily with an English translation for the director;
2) An amenity Canteen is functioning with great success;
3) We have established an internal money system by which workers are paid and which works in conjunction with the Canteen…

Under the present Canteen System of paying workers and the anticipated cessation of American cigarettes from Red Cross parcels, present supplies of amenity items will not meet the demand, and an internal economic crisis can be foreseen. Particularly items needed are shaving soap, cigarettes, razor blades, brilliantine, hair and bobby pins, combs.

The following suggestions are respectively submitted, with the full realization of their lack of originality:

1) That amenity supplies (Canteen) be increased so that economic stability can be maintained and so that payment for working can be kept sufficiently attractive;
2) That a source of cigarettes can be found. 6

Another report, dated July 15, 1946, reiterates the creation of an internal camp money system and the scarcity of amenities. 7

Therefore it appears that Scheinfeld Lithuanian camp money was used in the canteen from May through July 1946. However, because of acute shortages of goods, opportunities to actually spend the money were greatly diminished, and the monetary system subsequently was abandoned.

It is surmised that all Scheinfeld notes were destroyed, with one authority keeping an estimated fifteen sets as souvenirs, thus accounting for the hoard discovered in England.

10 cents

50 cents

One dollar

Scheinfeld camp money is bilingual – Lithuanian on the obverse, English on the reverse. All notes feature a red serial number on the obverse, while a blue, hand-stamped “Scheinfeld UNRRA (Team 569)” emblem resembling a globe appears on the reverse. Issued in denominations of 10 and 50 centu and 1 doleris, the notes bear the inscription UNRRA TEAM 569, SCHEINFELD / (denomination) / CAMP MONEY in Lithuanian and English.

10 centu Light green 104 x 51mm
50 centu Dark green 118 x 63mm
1 doleris Tan 155 x 70mm

L-2. Regensburg

Until the establishment of the Scheinfeld camp in April 1946, its 1500 residents were interred at the DP camp in Regensburg. Apparently, Scheinfeld camp money was patterned after the money circulated at Regensburg, for a 1-dollar note in a private collection is identical to the Scheinfeld 1 doleris, except that the text on both sides is in English.




1 dollar


155 x 70mm

L-3. Bad Worishofen

The Lithuanian encampment in Bad Worishofen was located 65 kilometers west of Munich. A product of Team 558, notes circulating in this DP camp were issued in denominations of 1, 5 and 20 units and shared the same dimensions. The English inscription reads D.P. CENTER BAD WORISHOFEN / UNRRA (denomination) UNITS / UNRRA / TEAM 558. A six-digit serial number printed in red appears at the bottom center, and a leafy design surrounds the perimeter. In the lower left corner, outside the border appears in German, DRUCK: HANS HOLZMANN, BAD WORISHOFEN, VII. 46. 15000, which translates “Printed by Hans Holzmann, Bad Worishofen, July 1946, 15000 printed.”

1 unit Light Yellow 110 x 76mm
5 units Peat 110 x 76mm
20 units Green 110 x 76mm

Five units

L-4. Ludwig

The Lithuanian encampment in Ludwig was part of the Dillingen UNRRA district, Team 308. Money used in this camp consisted of two issues; the first was printed on white paper, the second on light-violet paper. Initially, the notes were used to pay day laborers, but eventually all the camp’s inhabitants received payment in this form, with men receiving white notes and women receiving violet notes!

Issued in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 50 units, the Ludwig camp money was designed by Lithuanian artist Antanas Rukstele (1906-), well-known as a painter and ethnographer. Rukstele had served as curator of the Ciurlionis Art Gallery and the ethnographic section of the Museum of Culture in Kaunas, Lithuania. As a painter he was responsible for a great many landscapes, portraits, thematic compositions and book illustrations.


He lived in the Ludwig DP camp until 1949 and since 1955 has resided in the United States. Apparently, UNRRA officials were so pleased with Rukstele’s artwork that they used his same basic design for the Polish DP money issued in the Luitpold camp, also in the Dillingen district.

UNRRA records confirm the use of camp money in the Dillingen district. In May 1946 Team 308 Field Supervisor G.C. Brooke wrote:

The Welfare Department has prepared a new currency system based on rationing amenities supplies. Every resident is given a prescribed number of points, and further points are added for workers according to the tasks involved. Additional points are given to sick and old people, students and nursing mothers. 8

In a later report, Brooke stated:

The team has now a Point system operating for P.X. and amenity supplies. The object of the scheme is to allow a fair distribution of supplies to all camp dwellers, with special facilities offered to the various working groups. The Principal Welfare Officer reports that it has been a stimulant to the D.P.’s to seek engagement in some form of camp activity. 9

The design on the Ludwig notes consists of a Lithuanian tulip motif, which together with the UNRRA emblem, is printed in green. The text and unit numerals are overprinted in red. All the notes employed the same design, allowing for their “generic” use, and the obverse of each reads LITHUANIAN D.P. CENTER LUDWIG DILLINGEN / UNRRA UNITS / TEAM 308. A serial number is printed in red at the bottom center, slightly to the right. The initials of the artist, “AR,” appear on the bottom border to the left of center.

The reverse, printed in Lithuanian, translates “The falsification and counterfeiting of Camp Marks is a punishable offense.” Although the denominations are in units, the penalty clause reveals that the money was connected with Germany’s mark monetary system.

First issue

1 unit White 85 x 55mm
2 units White 85 x 55mm
5 units White 85 x 55mm
10 units White 112 x 68mm
50 units White 112 x 68mm
Second issue

1 unit Violet 85 x 55mm
2 units Violet 85 x 55mm
5 units Violet 85 x 55mm
10 units Violet  112 x 68mm
50 units  Violet  112 x 68mm

L-5. Nordlingen

Fifty-five kilometers from Dillingen, the Nordlingen camp housed 500 Latvians and Lithuanians. In describing the camp money of the Dillingen district, Field Supervisor Brooke reported:

The camp P.X., working on a “point” system, is gradually becoming firmly established, and the system has been extended to the Nordlingen Camp. The D.P.’s are almost enthusiastic regarding this type of payment, and it has certainly increased the desire to work. 10

To date, no money of the Nordlingen camp has surfaced, although it would be logical to assume that it featured the same design as that of the Ludwig camp money. According to records, the Nordlingen issues began to circulate sometime in June 1946.

Other Camp Money


O-1. Asperg

The internment camp in Asperg, Germany, issued money in denominations of 50 pfenning and 0.5, 1 and 2 reichsmarks. Typed and rubber-stamped, the notes appear with and without a stamped expiration date of March 3 or March 10, 1947.

50 pfennig

0.5 reichsmark

1 reichsmark

2 reichsmark

O-2 Luitpold

Like many DP camps in Germany, the Luitpold encampment also was part of the Dillingen district, Team 308. Internal currency was issued in 1946, using the design created by Lithuanian Antanas Rukstele. The artist’s initials appear on the obverse on the bottom border to the left of center.

Luitpold Obverse side

Reverse side

At present, a 20-unit note is known to exist, displaying a blue background with red overprinting. The note reads POLISH D.P. CENTER LUITPOLD DILLIGEN / 20 UNRRA UNITS / TEAM 308. On the reverse is a penalty clause written in Polish, which translates “Those who falsify the camp marks or those who use falsified currency will be punished.”

20 units Blue 115 x 70mm



The Austrian division of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (the predecessor of the Internal Refugee Organization) issued money in 1-, 5-, 10- and 20 unit denominations for use in Austrian camps. Numismatic literature offers no other information about these notes.

1 unit

5 units

10 units

20 units

O-4. International Refugee Organization


1 unit
113 x 67mm
5 units
113 x 67mm
10 units
113 x 67mm


O-5. Netherlands Liaison Office for Displaced Persons

Notes held by displaced persons in the Netherlands were stamped with the inscription NETHERLANDS LIAISON OFFICE / FOR DISPLACED PERSONS / (date). No additional information about these notes is available.


1. Samuel Halperin, “Jewish Banknotes of Postwar Europe,” The Shekel, V, No. 4 (1982), p. 5.Return to text
2. Albert Pick and Carl Siemsen, Das Lagergeld der Konzentrations-und D.P. Lager 1933-1945, (Munchen: Baltenberg Verlag, 1976), p. 40. Return to text
3. Ibid., p. 41.Return to text
4. A detailed history of DP money of the Cyprus camps can be found in Sylvia Haffner’s “Cyprus Canteen Chits,” published in The Shekel, XVI (1983). Return to text
5. A concise history of the Scheinfeld camp and its money appears in the IBNS Journal, 18, No. 4 (1980).Return to text
6. UNRRA Monthly Team Report, United Nations, Scheinfeld Team 569, June 15, 1946, p. 6.Return to text
7. UNRRA Monthly Team Report, United Nations, Scheinfeld 569, July 15, 1946, p. 6Return to text
8. Letter to S. Zisman from G. C. Brooke, Field Supervisor Team 308 Dillingen. United Nations, UNRRA District No. 5, Munich, May 16, 1946, p. 2. Return to text
9. Letter to S. B. Zisman, District Director, from G. C. Brooke, Field Supervisor Team 308 Dillingen. United Nations, UNRRA District No. 5, Munich, June 17, 1946, p. 2.Return to text
10. Letter to S. B. Zisman, District Director, from G. C. Brooke, Field Supervisor Team 308 Dillingen. United Nations, UNRRA District No. 5, Munich, July 16, 1946, p. 3.Return to text


Dypukas, No. 1. Kempten, Germany: August 1946.

Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem: Keter, 1971.

Encyclopedia Lituanica. 1975 ed., Vol. IV, s.v. “Refugees,” by Simas Suziedelis.

Haffner, Sylvia. “Cyprus Canteen Chits.” The Schekel, XVI, No. 2 (1983), pp. 58-61.

Halperin, Samuel. “Jewish Banknotes of Postwar Europe.” The Shekel, V. No. 2 (1972), pp. 2-5, 24.

Kreivenas, Juozas. “UNRRA D. P. Camp Money.” The Knight, 3 (April-May 1981), p. 1, 2.

Lietuviu Enciklopedia. 1962 ed., Vol. XXVII, s.v. “Scheinfeld,” by A. Bendorius.

Narkeliunaite, S. ed. DP Baltic Camp at Seedorf, 1946-1947. UNRRA Team 295 B.A.O.R.

Pasilaitis, Juozas. Hearken Then Judge, Sidelights on Lithuanian DPs. Patria: Tubengen-Stuggart, 1947

Passic, Frank. “The Lithuanian DP Camp Money of Scheinfeld.” IBNS Journal, 18 (1980), pp. 119-121.

________. “UN Records Confirm Scheinfeld Camp Money Use!” The Knight, 6, No. 2, p. 1, 2.

Shmueili, Meir. “The Canteen Currency of the Cyprus Concentration Camps.” The Numismatist, 63 (1950) pp. 840-842.

Pick, Albert and Carl Siemsen. Das Lagergeld der Konzentrtations – und D. P. Lager, 1933-1945. Munchen: Baltenberg Verlag, 1976.

Slabaugh, Arlie. Prisoner of War Monies and Medals. Chicago: Hewitt Brothers, 1966.

United Nations. UNRRA District No. 5 Munich. Letter to S.B. Zisman from G.C. Brooke, Field Supervisor Team 308 Dillingen, May 16, 1946

________. UNRRA District No. 5 Munich. Letter to S.B. Zisman from G.C. Brooke, Field Supervisor Team 308 Dillingen, June 17, 1946

________. UNRRA District No. 5 Munich. Letter to S.B. Zisman from G.C. Brooke, Field Supervisor Team 308 Dillingen, July 16, 1946

________. UNRRA Monthly Team Report. June 15, 1946, Team 596, Scheinfeld. UNRRA File, Box 54

________. UNRRA Monthly Team Report. July 15, 1946, Team 596, Scheinfeld. UNRRA File, Box 54


The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture in Chicago for supplying original DP camp publications and the Ludwig note; and Michael Mojtowycz for his extraordinary gift of the Luitpold note. We would particularly like to thank the staff of the United Nations Archives Section – Marilla B. Guptil, Jack Belwood, Bertram Johnston and Wendy Marx; Juozas Kapacinskas, Sr. for supplying an original photograph of the Scheinfeld camp; Dr. Charles Hamilton; and Dr. Alan York.

Co-founder of the Lithuanian Numismatic Association and editor of its publication, The Knight, FRANK PASSIC is considered a leading authority on Lithuanian numismatics and has written numerous articles on the subject including “The Medals of Petras Rimsa”, which appeared in the May 1983 issue of The Numismatist. Since 1979 he has served as numismatic curator at the Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture in Chicago.

STEVE FELLER is assistant professor of physics at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Upon earning a bachelor of science degree from Clarkson College in Potsdam, New York, he went on to obtain his master’s and doctorate degrees from Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. Feller also holds membership in the American Israel Numismatic Association and the Society of Paper Money Collectors.

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All text copyright, 2009 © all rights reserved Frank Passic

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